english swedish explanation
a- utan, sakna Without, lacking.
a-, ab- från, "Away from".
Not involving living organisms.
abortive aborterande Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
acaulescent stjälklös, utan stjälk Stemless, or with no visible stem.
accrescent tillväxande Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
achene achenium A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
acicular nålformad, nållik Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed.
aciculate repig, rispad Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
acroscopic vänd mot spetsen Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
actinomorphic radiärsymmetrisk Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
aculeate vasstaggig Prickly.
acuminate avsmalnande successivt mot spetsen Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
acute spetsig Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides.
ad- till, mot "To", "towards".
adaxial adaxial Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
adnate vidvuxen Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
adventitious adventiv- Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
adventive införd Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
aerial luft- Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
aestivation knoppläge The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
agamospermy agamospermi The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
aggregate aggregat A clump or cluster; an aggregate fruit is a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower strawberry or raspberry; in taxonomy, an aggregate is an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship.
alate vingad With wing-like appendages.
allele allel One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
With allogamy.
allogamy korspollination Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
allopatric allopatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
allopolyploid allopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.

alternate strödda, spiralställda, växelvis Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals.
alternately pinnate växelvis parbladig Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
alveolate bikaksmönstrad With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
amplexicaul stjälkomfattande Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
analogous analog A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
androdioecious androdioik Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
androecium androecium, ståndarna The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
androgynophore androgynofor A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
androgynous sambyggare Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious.
andromonoecious andromonoik Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
androphore androfor A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
anemochorous vindspridd Dispersed by wind.
anemophilous vindpollinerad Pollinated by wind.
aneuploid aneuploid A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
angiosperm angiosperm, gömfröig A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
angular kantig Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
anisomerous oliktalig Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
annual annuell, ettårig A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year.
annulus ring A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
ante- framför, före Before, in front of.
anterior främre In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
anther ståndarknapp The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
anthesis anthes, blomning The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
antrorse framåtriktad Directed towards the distal end.
apetalous apetal, utan krona, kronbladslös Without petals.
apex spets, topp The very tip of an organ.
apical vid spetsen, apikal, toppställd At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary.
apiculate bredspetsad With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point.
apiculum kort udd A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
apocarpous apokarp, med fria fruktblad A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
apomictic apomiktisk A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apomixis apomixis Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apophysis apofys A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
appendiculate med utskott With small appendages.
appressed tilltryckt Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
Tree-like in growth or general appearance; applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
archegonium arkegon In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
arcuate bågböjd Curved like a bow.
The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
areolate rutmönstrad Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
aril arillus, fröhylle A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
arista borst An awn or bristle.
aristate borstförsedd Having an awn or bristle at the tip.
articulate ledad Jointed.
ascending uppåtstigande, uppstigande, uppåtsvängd Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
asexual reproduction könlös förökning The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
asperous sträv Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
asymmetric asymmetrisk Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
auricle bladöra An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
auriculate försedd med bladöron With auricles.
autogamous autogam, självbefruktande With autogamy.
autogamy autogami, självbefruktning Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
autopolyploid autopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
awn borst A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
axil veck, bladveck The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary.
axillary axillär In the axil.
axis huvudaxel The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
basal basal, vid basen At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary.
basifixed basifix, fäst vid basen Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
basiscopic nedåtvänd Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
beak näbb A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
berry bär A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
bi- två-, två gånger Two, twice.
biconvex bikonvex Convex on two sides.
bidentate dubbelt tandad Ambiguous; use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
biennial bienn, tvåårig A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
bifid tvåkluven Two-cleft.
bilabiate tvåläppig Two-lipped.
bilocular tvårummig Having two cavities.
bilomentum ledskida A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
binary name
The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
bipartite tvådelad Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnate dubbelt parbladig Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate.
bisexual tvåkönad Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
bisymmetric bisymmetrisk, tvåsymmetrisk Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
biternate dubbelt tredelad Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.
blade skiva The expanded part of a leaf.
bloom vitdaggigt överdrag A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
bract stödblad, allmänt svepe, täckfjäll A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
bracteate med stödblad With bracts.
bracteole förblad, enskilt svepe A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
brevistylous brevistyl, med kort stift Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
bud knopp An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
bud-scales knoppfjäll Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
bulb lök A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
bulbil groddknopp A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
bulbiliferous groddknoppsförsedd With bulbils.
caducous avfallande Falling off at an early stage.
caespitose tuvad Growing in tufts, tufted.
A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
callus förhårdnad In the Poaceae used for the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
calyptra rotmössa A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
calyx foder Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
campanulate klocklik Bell-shaped.
canaliculate fårad With a longitudinal groove or channel.
capillary hårfin Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
capitulum korg, litet huvud An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae.
capsule kapsel A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
carnose köttig Synonymous with succulent.
carpel fruktblad The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
cartilaginous broskartad Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
caryopsis karyops A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
catkin hänge A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible.
caudate med svanslikt utskott Having a long tail-like tip or appendage.
A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae).
cauliflorous kauliflori Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
cauline stjälk- Borne on the stem.
A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
A plant with winter buds above ground, but below 25 cm.
chartaceous pappersaktig Having a papery consistency.
chasmogamous chasmogam Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease.
choripetalous frikronbladig, med fribladig krona With the petals free from each other.
The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
ciliate cilierad With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
circinate kräkelformig Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
cladode fyllokladium A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.

clasping omslutande Grasping, embracing.
clathrate gallerformig With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
claw skaft The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
clavate klubblik Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
cleistogamous kleistogam Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
climber klätterväxt Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
clonal klonbildande Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
clone klon Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
cochleariform skedformad, skedlik Concave like a spoon, spoon-like.
cochleate snäckformad Coiled like a snail-shell.
Of a seed coat covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
colpate kolpat Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
column kolumn, könspelare A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
columnar pelarlik Column-like.
commissure fog, söm A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
complex komplex An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very variable.
compound sammansatt The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times, e.g. compound umbel.
compressed sammantryckt Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
cone kotte A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
cone scale
The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
confluent sammanflytande The running together of two parts into one, blending.
connate sammanvuxen Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
connective konnektiv, knappband The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
connivent sammanstötande, ihopstående Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
conoidal nästan konformig Almost cone-shaped.
contiguous vidstående Touching at the edges with no gap between.
contorted vriden Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
contracted sammandragen Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
convolute ihoprullad Rolled up longitudinally.
cordate hjärtlik bas Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base.
cordiform hjärtformad Shaped like a heart, in outline.
coriaceous läderartad Of a leathery texture.
corm stamknöl A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
corolla krona Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
corona bikrona A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
coronal scales bikronflikar Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
corymb kvast A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence.
corymbose kvastlik Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence.
costa småbladets mittnerv The midrib or rachis of a pinna.
costule sidosmåbladets mittnerv In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule.
cotyledon hjärtblad The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
crenate naggad Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth.
crenulate smånaggad Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
crested kamförsedd With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers.
crimson karmosinröd A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
crispate krusig Curly, wavy or crinkled.
cross fertilization korsbefruktning Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
cross pollination korspollination The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
crown kronan The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
crozier kräkla A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
crustaceous skorpartad, förhårdad Hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam kryptogam, sporväxt A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
cucullate med huva, huvformig, huvlik Hooded, hood-shaped.
culm strå The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
cuneate killik Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides).
cupule kupula, svepeskål A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
cuspidate avsmalnande tvärt mot spetsen Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point.
cylindrical cylindrisk Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section.
cymbiform båtformig Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular.
cyme knippe An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it.
cymose cymös, begränsad blomställning Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud.
A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
deciduous lövfällande, sommargrön Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
decumbent nedliggande med uppåtväxande spets Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
decurrent nedlöpande Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
decussate korsvis motsatta Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other.
deflexed böjd kraftigt nedåt Bent sharply downwards.
dehiscent uppsprickande Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
deltoid pyramidformad Pyramid-shaped.
dendroid trädlik Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
dentate tandad Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards.
denticulate fintandad Minutely toothed.
depauperate nödvuxen, förkrympt Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
depressed tillplattad Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
descending nedåtsvängd, snett nedåtriktad Having a direction gradually downwards.
Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (Fabaceae).
dichasium tvåsidigt knippe A cyme with two branches from each node.
dichogamy dikogami Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
dichotomous dikotom, gaffelgrenig Branching by forking into two equal branches.
dicotyledon två-hjärtbladig A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
digitate fingrad Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand.
dilated utvidgad Expanded, widened.
dimorphic dimorf With two different forms.
dioecious tvåbyggare, dioik Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
diploid diploid Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
disc diskus,disk Anything disc-shaped, e.g. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
dissected flikig Divided into segments.
distal distal, ytter-, ytterst Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
distichous tvåradig Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem.
dithecal tvårummig Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
divaricate spärrgrenig, utspärrad Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
divergent divergerande Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart than their bases.
dormancy tillfällig vila A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
dorsifixed dorsifix Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
dorsiventral dorsiventral Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
doubly dentate dubbelt tandad, dubbeltandad Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
doubly serrate dubbelsågad Serrate with small teeth on the large ones.
drooping svagt slokande, hängande Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
drupaceous stenfruklik Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe.
drupe stenfrukt A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
duplicato-dentate dubbelt tandad, dubbeltandad Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth.
dwarf-shrub småbuske, ris, dvärgbuske Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
e-, ex- utan Without, lacking; from, out of, away from.
ebracteate stödbladslös, utan stödblad Without bracts.
echinate taggig Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
ecotype ekotyp A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
ectotrophic mycorrhiza
Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
eglandular utan körtlar, glandelfri Without glands.
elaiosome oljerikt bihang, elaiosom An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
elater elater In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
ellipsoid ellipsoid A solid shape elliptic in side view.
elliptic elliptisk A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic.
elodeid långskottsväxter Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
elongated förlängd, utdragen Prolonged, extended, notably long.
emarginate grunt urnupen With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex.
embryo embryo, ung sporofyt A young plant contained within the seed.
enclosed innesluten, ej utskjutande Not protruding.
endocarp endokarp The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
endosperm endosperm, frövita The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
endotrophic mycorrhiza endotrof mykorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
ensiform svärdlik Sword-shaped.
entire hel, helbräddad Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected.
entomophilous insektspollinerad Insect-pollinated.
epi- på, ovanpå upon, on top of or added to.
epicalyx ytterfoder A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
Associated with the epidermis.
epidermis epidermis The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
epigeal epigeisk Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
epigynous epigyn, med översittande hylle Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
epiphyte epifyt A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
erect rakt uppåtstående, upprätt Upright, directed strictly upwards.
erectopatent snett uppåtriktad Directed obliquely upwards.
erose sargad Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded.
evergreen vintergrön Bearing leaves throughout the year.
exine exin The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
exocarp exokarp The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
exserted utskjutande Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
exstipulate utan stipler Without stipules.
extrafloral extraflorala Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
extrorse extrors Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
facultative fakultativ Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
falcate skärformig Sickle-shaped.
farinose mjölig Mealy.
fascicle bunt, tofs A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
fasciculate i buntar eller tofsar Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
fertile fertil Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
fertilization befruktning The union of male and female gametes.
fibrous fibrös, trådig Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
fibrous roots birötter A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
filament ståndarsträng A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
filiform trådformig Threadlike, slender and elongated.
fimbriate fransig Fringed.
fissured skrovlig With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
fistulose pipig, rörformig Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
flaccid slokande, vek, slapp Limp, unable to support its own weight.
fleshy köttig
flexible böjlig Pliable.
flexuous vågig, vågböjd, slingrande Of a stem or hair, wavy.
floccose flockhårig Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
floriferous med blommor, blommande Bearing flowers.
flower blomma The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
foliaceous bladlik Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
follicle baljkapsel A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion (Ranunculaceae).
foveolate smågropig Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
free fria When applied to floral organs: not fused.
Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary.
frond blad av ormbunke eller palm A large, divided leaf.
fruit frukt Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
fruticose buskartad, busklik Shrub-like (woody).
funicle frösträng The stalk of an ovule.
fusiform spolformig Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
gamete gamet A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
gametophyte gametofyt The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
geitonogamy grannpollination Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
gemma groddknopp Synonymous with bulbil.
gemmiferous med förökningskroppar With gemmae (bulbils).
geniculate knäböjd Abruptly bent like a knee.
genome genom A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
genotype genotyp The total set of genes in an individual.
A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
geophyte geofyt A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
gibbous kupig With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
glabrous kal Without hairs.
gland körtel A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
glandular körtelförsedd Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
glandular hair körtelhår A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
globose klotrund Spherical.
glomerule gyttring A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
glumaceous fjällik, agnlik Glume-like.
glume skärmfjäll, tomfjäll, One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
granulose grynig With a sand-like surface structure.
group grupp Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
gymnosperm nakenfröig A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
gynobasic gynobasisk A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in the Lamiaceae.
gynodioecious gynodioik Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
gynoecium gynöcium, pistill, -er The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
gynomonoecious gynomonoik Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
gynophore gynofor A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column.
The general appearance of a plant.
The environment in which a plant lives.
halophyte halofyt A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
hamate hak- el. krokspetsad, hakformig Barbed or hooked at the apex.
hapaxanthous hapaxant A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
haploid haploid Having a single set of chromosomes.
hastate spjutlik Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards.
head huvud A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster.
helicoid skruvad Coiled.
helicoid cyme skruvad A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side.
helophyte helofyt A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
hemi- halv- Half-.
hemicryptophyte hemikryptofyt A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
herb ört A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
herbaceous örtartad Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
herkogamy herkogami Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
hermaphroditic hermafroditisk, tvåkönad Bisexual.
hetero- olika, annan Different, other, uneven.
heteroblastic heteroblastisk Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
heterophyllous heterofylli Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
heterostylous heterostyl Of species having heterostyly.
hexaploid hexaploid Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
hilum fröärr The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
hirsute strävluden, strävhårig With long, coarse, rough hairs.
hispid styvhårig With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
holotype holotyp A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
homo- lika, av samma slag like, of the same kind.
homogamous homogam With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
homologous homolog Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
homosporous homospor Having spores all of one kind, as most pteridophytes.
homostylous homostyl Not heterostylous.
hooded huvlik With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
hyaline hinnartad Colourless and transparent.
hydrochorous vattenspridd Dispersed by water.
hydrophilous vattenpollinerad Pollinated in water.
A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
hypanthium hypanthium A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
hypo- under, nedtill Below, under, beneath.
relating to the hypodermis.
A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
hypogeal hypogeisk Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
hypogynous hypogyn, med undersittande hylle Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
imbricate tegellagd Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
imparipinnate parbladig med uddblad Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet.
inbreeding inavel The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
incised inskuren Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly.
inclining lutande, snett nedåtriktad, nedböjd Bending downwards.
incrassate förtjockad Thickened or swollen.
indehiscent ej uppsprickande Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
indumentum behåring, hårighet The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
induplicate invikt Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
indusium svepefjäll A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
inferior undersittande Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
inflated uppblåst Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
inflexed böjd kraftigt inåt Bent sharply inwards.
inflorescence blomställning A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles.
Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
infructescence fruktställning A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
inserted vidfäst Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
integument fröhinna One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
internode internod, ledstycke The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence.
Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
interruptedly pinnate olikformigt parbladig With alternating large and small leaflets.
intine intin The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
introgression inkorsning The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
introrse intrors Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
involucre svepen, holk A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
involute inrullad Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface.
irregular oregelbunden Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
isoëtid rosettväxt A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
isomerous liktalig Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
isotype isotyp A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
juvenile juvenil Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
karyotype karyotyp The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
keel köl A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
keeled kölad Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
labellum läpp A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
labiate läppförsedd Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
lacerate oregelbundet flikig Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn.
A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
laciniate uppflikad Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
lamina skiva The blade of a leaf or petal.
lanate ullhårig Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs.
lanceolate lansettlik Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle.
lateral roots sidorötter Roots arising from the main root.
latex mjölksaft Milky fluid, usually whitish.
lax gles Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
leaf blad An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
leaflet småblad Each unit of a compound leaf.
A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description, to serve in place of a holotype which is missing or has been destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
legume balja A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod.
lemma ytteragn, ytterblomfjäll In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
lenticular linsformad Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
liana lian A climbing, woody plant.
ligulate snärpförsedd With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
ligule snärp A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes.
limb bräm The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
linear linjär Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1.
lingulate tunglik Tongue-shaped.
lip läpp One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
lobe lob A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
lobed loberad Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
loculicidal frörumsdelande Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.


lomentum ledbalja A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
longistylous longistyl, långstiftig Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
long-shoot långskott A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
lyrate lyrformad Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
lyrato- lyr- As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
macro- stor Large.
magenta rödviolett A dark purplish-red colour.
Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
marginal vid kanten, kantställd At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture.
An aggregation of pollen or spores.
mauve ljust lila A pale purple colour.
medifixed medifix, fäst vid mitten Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
mega- stor Large.
megaspore makrospor, megaspor In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
meiosis meios A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
membranous hinnaktig Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
mericarp delfrukt A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units (e.g., Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae).
-merous -talig The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
meso- mellan- Middle.
mesocarp mesokarp The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
micro- liten Small.
microspore mikrospor In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
midrib mittsträng, mittnerv The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
mitosis mitos A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
monadelphous - , engruppig Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
mono- en, enda One-.
monochasium ensidigt knippe A cyme with one branch from each node.
monocotyledon en-hjärtbladig A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
monoecious sambyggare Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
monophyletic monofyletisk A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
monopodial obegränsad With a persistent terminal growing point.
monothecal enrummig With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
monotypic monotypisk With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
mucro udd A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
mucronate uddspetsig Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point.
multinodal flernodig With numerous nodes.
muricate skrovlig Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
muticous trubbig Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
mycorrhiza mykorrhiza A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
myrmecochorous myrspridd Dispersed by ants.
naked naken Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
navicular båtformad Boat-shaped.
Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
nectary nektarium A nectar-secreting organ.
neotype neotyp A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
nerve nerv Synonymous with vein.
nigrescent svartnande Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming black" and "blackish").
nocturnal nattblommande Nightly.
nodding nickande Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
node led The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
nomen conservandum
A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
nomen illegitimum
A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
nomen nudum
A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
nomen rejiciendum
A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
nucellus nucellus The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
nut nöt A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
nymphaeid flytbladsväxt A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
ob- omvänt The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
obconical omvänt konisk Conical but attached at the narrower end.
obcordate omvänt hjärtlik Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
oblate tväroval Almost circular but wider than long.
obligate obligat Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy.
oblique sned, lutande With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
oblong brett avlång A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong.
obovate omvänt äggrund A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate.
obtuse trubbig Blunt or rounded at apex.
ochrea stipelslida A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae.
A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
opaque ogenomskinlig, matt Dull, non-translucent.
operculum lock A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
opposite motsatta, motsatt Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
orbicular cirkelrund A flat shape, circular in outline.
orifice mynning, öppning The opening, the mouth.
outbreeding korsbefruktning The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
outcrossing korspollination Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
ovary fruktämne The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
ovate äggrund Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects): widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate.
ovoid äggformig A solid shape with the form of an egg.
ovule fröanlag, fröämne Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
ovuliferous scale fröfjäll A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
palate svalgknöl, buckla A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
palea inneragn, innerblomfjäll In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
palmate handflikig Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base.
palmatisect handdelad Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
panduriform fiollik Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle.
panicle vippa A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence.
papery pappersaktig Having a papery consistency.
papilla papill A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
Covered with papillae.
pappus pensel Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit (Asteraceae).
paraphyletic parafyletisk A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
paraphyses parafyser Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
parasite parasit An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
parenchyma parenkym Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary.
paripinnate parbladig utan uddblad Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet.
partial inflorescence delblomställning A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
-partite delad Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
patent rakt utstående, utbredd Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
pectinate kamlik Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
pedate fotlik, handflikig med flikiga flikar Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
pedicel blomskaft The stalk of the individual flower.
pedicellate skaftad Stalked (of flowers).
peduncle blomställningsskaft The stalk of an inflorescense; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
pedunculate skaftad Stalked (of inflorescences).
peltate sköldlik Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk.
pendent hängande Hanging down.
Having five parts.
pentaploid pentaploid Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
perennial perenn, flerårig A plant that lives for more than two years.
Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.
perianth hylle, kalk The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
perianth segment hylleblad, kalkblad The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished.
pericarp fruktvägg The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
perigynous kringsittande Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
periodically serrate periodiskt sågad Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others.
perisperm perisperm Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
perispore perispor A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
perpendicular lodrät, vertikal eller vinkelrät mot Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
persistent kvarsittande Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
petal kronblad One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured.
petaloid kronbladslik Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
petiolate skaftad With a petiole, not sessile.
petiole bladskaft The stalk of a leaf.
petiolulate skaftad With stalked leaflets.
petiolule småbladsskaft The stalk of a leaflet.
phanerogam fanerogam, fröväxt A plant reproducing by seeds.
phanerophyte fanerofyt A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
phenotype fenotyp The physical characteristics of an organism.
phyllary holkfjäll Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
Synonymous with cladode.
phyllode fyllodium A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
phylogeny fylogeni The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
pilose mjukhårig Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
pinna småblad av första ordningen, småblad The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules.
pinnate -parbladig Divided into pinnae.
pinnatifid parflikig Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib.
pinnatisect djupt parflikig Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.
pinnule småblad av högre ordning A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments.
pistil pistill The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
pistillate honlig Female (of flowers).
A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
placenta fröfäste, placenta The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
placentation placentation The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.
Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
pleiochasium flersidigt knippe A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
plicate veckad Folded.
plumose fjäderlik Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
plurilocular flerrummig Hollow, with more than two rooms.
pod balja A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
pollen pollen The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
The pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination (Asclepiadaceae).
pollinium pollinium In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
poly- många Many.
Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
polygamous polygam With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphic mångformig With more than two distinct morphological variants.
polyphyletic polyfyletisk A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
polyploid polyploid Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
porate porat Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
post- efter, bakom After, behind.
posterior bortre At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
precocious för tidig - Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
premorse avhuggen, avbiten Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off.
prickle borsttagg, tagg A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
pro parte delvis Partly, in part.
process utväxt An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on.
procumbent nedliggande Trailing or spreading along the ground.
propagule vegetativ diaspor A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prostrate krypande Lying flat on the ground.
protandrous protandrisk Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
prothallus protallium The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies.
protogynous protogyn Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
proximal proximal, inner-, innerst Near to the organ's point of attachment.
A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
pteridophytes ormbunksväxter Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
puberulent småhårig Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
pubescence hårighet The hair covering.
pubescent hårig Hairy.
pulvinate kuddlik Cushion-shaped.
A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
punctate prickig Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
pungent stingande, stickande Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
purple purpurfärgad A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
pyriform päronformig Pear-shaped.
quadrangular fyrkantig With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
raceme klase An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex.
racemose racemös, obegränsad Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel.
Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
rachis huvudaxel, huvudnerv The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
radiate radierande, utstrålande, radiärsymmetrisk Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers.
radical låg-, basal- Basal.
ramet ramet One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
ray stråle Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
reclining svagt lutande, svagt nedåtriktad, nedböjd Turned or bent downward.
recurved tillbakaböjd Bent backwards.
reduplicate utvikt With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
reflexed böjd kraftigt bakåt Bent sharply backwards.
reniform njurlik Kidney-shaped.
repand grunt buktig When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
resin kåda A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
resin duct hartskanal Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
resupinate resupinat Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
reticulate nätådrig Forming or covered with a network.
retrorse bakåtriktad Directed towards the proximal end.
retuse grunt inskuren With a small incision in a round or blunt apex.
revolute bakåtrullad, nedvikt om bladkant) Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface.
Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
rhizome jordstam Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
rigid styv, stel Stiff, not flexible.
rootstock rotstock An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
rosette rosett A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
rufescent rodnande Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming red" and "reddish").
rugose rynkig With a deeply wrinkled surface.
rugulose svagt rynkig With minutely wrinkled surface.
ruminate tuggad Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
runcinate hajtandad With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf.
runner reva Synonymous with stolon.
saccate säcklik Bag- or pouch-shaped.
sagittate pillik Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards.
saprophyte saprofyt A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
scabrid strävprickig Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
Minutely roughened.
Synonymous with scabrid.
scale fjäll A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
scape stängel A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
scapose med stängel With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
scarious pergamentartad Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
scarlet scharlakansröd A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
schizocarp klyvfrukt A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
sciophyte skuggväxt A plant that grows only in shady places.
sclerenchyma sklerenkym Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
scorpioid cyme sicksackknippe A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young.
scrambler klängväxt Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
scutate sköldformig Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
secund ensidig One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
seed frö The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
self-compatible självfertil Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
self-fertilization självbefruktning Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
self-incompatible självsteril Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
self-pollination självpollination The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
semi- halvt, halv- Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
sensu lato i vid bemärkelse In the broad sense.
sensu stricto i strikt bemärkelse In the narrow sense.
sepal foderblad One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
sepaloid foderbladslik Sepal-like.
septicidal skiljeväggsdelande Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
septifragous skiljeväggsbrytande Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
septum skiljevägg A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
serial radvis, seriell Arranged in a row; serial buds are axillary, each one adaxial to the next older bud.
sericeous silkeshårig Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
serrate sågad Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward.
serrulate finsågad Minutely serrate.
sessile oskaftad Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
seta borst A bristle or stiff hair.
setaceous borstlik Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
setose borstförsedd Beset with bristles.
sheath slida A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
shoot skott A young stem or branch.
short-shoot kortskott A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
shrub buske A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
sigmoid S-böjd Bent like the letter S.
silicula rundad skida, kort skida. A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
siliqua skida A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
simple hel, enkel, ogrenad Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
sinuate buktig Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions.
sinus inbuktning The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
solitary ensam Borne singly.
sorus sorus, sporangiesamling A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
spadix kolv A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis.
spathe hölsterblad A large bract surrounding an inflorescence (Araceae, Lemnaceae, Hydrocharitaceae).
spathulate spatelformig, spadlik Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part.

spermatophyte fröväxt A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
spike ax A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
spikelet småax The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
spine torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
spinose tornig With spines.
spinule småtagg A small spine.
spinulose småtaggig With small spines.
sporangium sporsamling, sporgömme A body producing spores.
spore spor A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
sporophyll sporfjäll A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
sporophyte sporofyt The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
spur sporre A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
stalk skaft Any narrow basal part of an organ.
stamen ståndare The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
staminode staminodium A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
standard segel The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
stellate stjärnformig, stjärn- Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
stem stam, stjälk The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
stem-clasping stjälkomfattande Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
sterile steril Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
stigma märke The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
stipe skaft A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
stipel stipell A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
stipitate skaftad Stalked, borne on a stipe.
stipulate stipelförsedd With stipules.
stipule stipel Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
stolon stolon, reva A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
Bearing stolons.
stoma klyvöppning A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
With stomata.
straggling spretande, spretig Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
striate fårad, strimmig Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
striation strimmighet A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
strigose borsthårig Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
With short, stiff hairs.
A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
stylar part
In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
style stift The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
stylopodium stylopodium A swelling on the top of the ovary (Apiaceae).
sub- nästan Meaning almost, not completely.
submerged nedsänkt Growing under water.
subshrub halvbuske A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
subtend stödja- To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
subulate sylformig Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point.
succulent fet, köttig, saftig Fleshy and juicy.
sucker rotskott An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
suffruticose något förvedad Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
sulcate fårad Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
superior översittande Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
suture sammanväxningslinje, söm The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
sympatric sympatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
sympetalous samkronbladig With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
sympodial begränsad, sympodial Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
syncarpous samfruktbladig, synkarp Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
synsepalous med sambladigt foder With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntepalous med sambladig krona With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntype syntyp One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
taproot pålrot A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
taxon taxon A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
tendril klänge A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
tepal kalkblad One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
teratologic deformerad, monstruös With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
terete jämnrund, trind Circular in cross-section.
terminal avslutande, toppställd At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
ternate tredelad, trefingrad A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate.
testa fröskal The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
tetrad tetrad A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
tetramerous tetramer Having four parts.
tetraploid tetraploid Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
thallus bål A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
theca knapphalva The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
thorn torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
throat svalg The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
thyrse klase An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
tomentose filthårig Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
triangular triangulär Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross section.
trichome trikom An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
tricuspidate tretandad Having three sharp points at the apex.
trifid trekluven Three-cleft.
trifoliate trebladig Having three leaves.
trifoliolate trefingrad Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate.
trigonous rundat trekantig A body triangular in section with rounded edges.
Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
trimorphic trimorf With three different forms.
triquetrous vasst trekantig A body triangular in section with sharp edges.
trullate murslevsformig Trowel-shaped; a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide.
truncate tvär Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases).
trunk trädstam The single, central stem of a tree.
tube pip A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
tuber knöl A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
tubercle småknöl, liten vårta A small blunt outgrowth.
tuberculate småvårtig, småknölig With small, smooth, blunt projections.
tuberous knöllik Tuber-like.
tubular rörformig Hollow and almost cylindrical.
tuft tuva A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
tufted tuvad With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
tunic lökskal The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
turgid uppsvälld Swollen.
turion turion A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
twig kvist A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
twiner slingerväxt A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
twining slingrande Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
umbel flock An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point.
umbo navel Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
umbonate navlad With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
unarmed obeväpnad Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
undulate undulerad, vågig Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves.
With the base contracted into a claw.
uni- en- One-.
unilocular enrummig Hollow, with one room.
unisexual enkönad A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
urceolate urnlik Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
utricle fruktgömme A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
valvar part
In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
valvate kantlagd Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead).
Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
variegated brokig Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
vascular plant kärlväxt A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
wedge-shaped kilformig Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
vegetative vegetativ The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
vegetative dispersal vegetativ spridning The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
vegetative reproduction vegetativ förökning A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
vein nerv A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
velutinous sammetshårig Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
venation nervatur The pattern formed by the veins.
vernation knoppläge; i bladknopp The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
verrucose vårtig Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
versatile rörlig When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement.
verticillate kransställda Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis.
vesicular blåsformig Bladderlike.
vesiculose med blåsor Covered with blisters or small bladders.
vestigial rudimentär Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
whorl krans An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
villous luden Covered with long, weak hairs.
wing vinge One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
violet violett, blålila A purplish-blue colour.
viscid klibbig Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
viscidium klibbskiva In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
viviparous vivipar With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
woody vedartad Having the texture of wood.
Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
xerophyte torrmarksväxt A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
zigzag sick-sack With short, sharp turns from side to side.
zygomorphic zygomorf With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.