||Not involving living organisms.
||Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
||The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
||Stemless, or with no visible stem.
||Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
||A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
||Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed.
||Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
||In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
||vendt mot spissen
||Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
||Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
||Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
||Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides.
||Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
||Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
||Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
||Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
||Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
||The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
||A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
||The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
||A clump or cluster; an aggregate fruit is a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower strawberry or raspberry; in taxonomy, an aggregate is an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship.
||With wing-like appendages.
||One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
||allogam, med kryssbefruktning
||Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
||Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
||A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
||Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals.
||Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
||With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
||An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
||Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
||A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
||Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
||Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
||The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
||A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
||Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious.
||Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
||A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
||Dispersed by wind.
||Pollinated by wind.
||A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
||angiosperm, dekkfrøet plante
||A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
||Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
||Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
||A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year.
||A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
||Before, in front of.
||In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
||The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
||The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
||A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
||Directed towards the distal end.
||The very tip of an organ.
||At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary.
||With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point.
||A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
||A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
||A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
||Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
||A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
||With small appendages.
||Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
||Tree-like in growth or general appearance; applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
||In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
||Curved like a bow.
||The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
||Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
||A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
||An awn or bristle.
||forsynt med børste/ brodd
||Having an awn or bristle at the tip.
||Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
||The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
||Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
||Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
||An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
||Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
||A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
||A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
||The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
||On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary.
||In the axil.
||The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
||basal, ved grunnen
||At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary.
||Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
||In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
||Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
||A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
||A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
||Convex on two sides.
||Ambiguous; use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
||A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
||Having two cavities.
||A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
||The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
||Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
||Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate.
||Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
||Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
||Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.
||The expanded part of a leaf.
||A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
||A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
||A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
||Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
||An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
||Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
||A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
||A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
||Falling off at an early stage.
||Growing in tufts, tufted.
||A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
||In the Poaceae used for the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
||A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
||Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
||With a longitudinal groove or channel.
||Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
||An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae.
||A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
||Synonymous with succulent.
||The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
||Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
||A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
||A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible.
||Having a long tail-like tip or appendage.
||A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae).
||Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
||Borne on the stem.
||A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
||A plant with winter buds above ground, but below 25 cm.
||Having a papery consistency.
||Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
||Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease.
||With the petals free from each other.
||The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
||With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
||Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
||Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
||Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
||A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.
||With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
||The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
||Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
||Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
||Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
||Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
||Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
||Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
||Concave like a spoon, spoon-like.
||Coiled like a snail-shell.
||Of a seed coat covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
||Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
||Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
||A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
||A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
||An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very variable.
||The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times, e.g. compound umbel.
||Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
||A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
||The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
||The running together of two parts into one, blending.
||Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
||The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
||Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
||som berører hverandre
||Touching at the edges with no gap between.
||Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
||Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
||Rolled up longitudinally.
||Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base.
||Shaped like a heart, in outline.
||Of a leathery texture.
||A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
||Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
||A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
||Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
||A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence.
||Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence.
||midtnerve i småblad/finne
||The midrib or rachis of a pinna.
||midtnerve i småfinne
||In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule.
||The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
||Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth.
||Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
||forsynt med kam
||With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers.
||A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
||Curly, wavy or crinkled.
||Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
||The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
||The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
||A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
||Hard, thin and brittle.
||A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
||The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
||Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides).
||A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
||Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point.
||Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section.
||Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular.
||An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it.
||Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud.
||A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
||An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
||Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
||Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
||Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
||Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
||Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other.
||Bent sharply downwards.
||som opner seg
||Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
||Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
||Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards.
||fint tannet, småtannet
||Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
||Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
||Having a direction gradually downwards.
||Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
||Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (Fabaceae).
||A cyme with two branches from each node.
||Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
||Branching by forking into two equal branches.
||A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
||Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand.
||With two different forms.
||Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
||Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
||Anything disc-shaped, e.g. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
||Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
||Divided into segments.
||Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
||Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem.
||Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
||Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
||Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
||Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart than their bases.
||A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
||Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
||Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
||Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
||Serrate with small teeth on the large ones.
||slapt hengende, nikkende
||Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
||Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe.
||A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
||Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth.
||Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
||Without, lacking; from, out of, away from.
||Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
||A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
||Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
||An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
||In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
||Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
||A solid shape elliptic in side view.
||A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic.
||Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
||Prolonged, extended, notably long.
||With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex.
||A young plant contained within the seed.
||The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
||The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
||Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
||Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
||Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected.
||upon, on top of or added to.
||A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
||Associated with the epidermis.
||The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
||Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
||Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
||A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
||Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
||Upright, directed strictly upwards.
||skrått rettet oppover
||Directed obliquely upwards.
||Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded.
||Bearing leaves throughout the year.
||The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
||The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
||Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
||Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
||Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
||At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
||Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
||A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
||Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
||With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
||Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
||The union of male and female gametes.
||Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
||A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
||A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
||Threadlike, slender and elongated.
||With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
||Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
||Limp, unable to support its own weight.
||Of a stem or hair, wavy.
||Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
||The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
||Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
||A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion (Ranunculaceae).
||Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
||When applied to floral organs: not fused.
||Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary.
||A large, divided leaf.
||Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
||The stalk of an ovule.
||Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
||A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
||The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
||Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
||Synonymous with bulbil.
||With gemmae (bulbils).
||Abruptly bent like a knee.
||A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
||The total set of genes in an individual.
||A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
||A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
||With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
||A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
||med kjertler, kjertel-
||Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
||A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
||A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
||One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
||With a sand-like surface structure.
||Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
||A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
||A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in the Lamiaceae.
||Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
||The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
||Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
||A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
||A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
||In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column.
||The general appearance of a plant.
||The environment in which a plant lives.
||A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
||Barbed or hooked at the apex.
||A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
||Having a single set of chromosomes.
||Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards.
||A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster.
||A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side.
||A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
||A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
||A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
||Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
||Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
||Different, other, uneven.
||Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
||Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
||Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
||Of species having heterostyly.
||Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
||The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
||With long, coarse, rough hairs.
||With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
||A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
||like, of the same kind.
||With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
||Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
||Having spores all of one kind, as most pteridophytes.
||With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
||Colourless and transparent.
||Dispersed by water.
||Pollinated in water.
||A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
||A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
||Below, under, beneath.
||relating to the hypodermis.
||A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
||Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
||Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
||Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
||Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet.
||The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
||Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly.
||Thickened or swollen.
||som ikke åpner seg
||Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
||The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
||Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
||A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
||Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
||Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
||Bent sharply inwards.
||A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles.
||Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
||A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
||Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
||One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
||The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence.
||Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
||With alternating large and small leaflets.
||The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
||The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
||Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
||A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
||Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface.
||Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
||A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
||Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
||A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
||Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
||The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
||A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
||Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
||A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
||Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
||Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn.
||A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
||Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
||The blade of a leaf or petal.
||Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs.
||Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle.
||Roots arising from the main root.
||Milky fluid, usually whitish.
||Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
||An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
||Each unit of a compound leaf.
||A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description, to serve in place of a holotype which is missing or has been destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
||A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod.
||In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
||An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
||Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
||A climbing, woody plant.
||With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
||A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes.
||The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
||Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1.
||One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
||A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
||Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
||Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.
||A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
||Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
||A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
||Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
||As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
||A dark purplish-red colour.
||Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
||At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture.
||An aggregation of pollen or spores.
||A pale purple colour.
||Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
||In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
||A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
||Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
||A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units (e.g., Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae).
||The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
||The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
||In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
||In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
||The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
||A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
||Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
||A cyme with one branch from each node.
||A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
||Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
||Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
||A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
||With a persistent terminal growing point.
||With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
||With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
||A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
||Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point.
||With numerous nodes.
||Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
||Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
||A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
||Dispersed by ants.
||Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
||A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
||Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
||A nectar-secreting organ.
||A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
||Synonymous with vein.
||Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming black" and "blackish").
||Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
||The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
||A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
||A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
||A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
||A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
||One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
||A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
||A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
||The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
||A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
||A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
||The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
||omvendt konisk, kjegleformet
||Conical but attached at the narrower end.
||Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
||Almost circular but wider than long.
||Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy.
||With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
||A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong.
||A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate.
||Blunt or rounded at apex.
||A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae.
||A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
||A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
||Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
||A flat shape, circular in outline.
||The opening, the mouth.
||The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
||Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
||The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
||Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects): widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate.
||A solid shape with the form of an egg.
||Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
||A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
||A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
||In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
||Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base.
||Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
||Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle.
||A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence.
||Having a papery consistency.
||A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
||Covered with papillae.
||Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit (Asteraceae).
||A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
||Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
||An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
||Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
||Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary.
||Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet.
||A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
||Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
||Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
||Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
||Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
||The stalk of the individual flower.
||Stalked (of flowers).
||The stalk of an inflorescense; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
||Stalked (of inflorescences).
||Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk.
||Having five parts.
||Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
||A plant that lives for more than two years.
||Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.
||The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
||The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished.
||The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
||Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
||Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others.
||Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
||A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
||Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
||Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
||One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured.
||Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
||With a petiole, not sessile.
||The stalk of a leaf.
||With stalked leaflets.
||The stalk of a leaflet.
||A plant reproducing by seeds.
||A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
||The physical characteristics of an organism.
||Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
||Synonymous with cladode.
||A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
||The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
||Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
||The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules.
||Divided into pinnae.
||Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib.
||Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.
||A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments.
||The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
||Female (of flowers).
||A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
||The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
||The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
||The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.
||Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
||A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
||The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
||Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
||Hollow, with more than two rooms.
||A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
||The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
||The pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination (Asclepiadaceae).
||In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
||Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
||With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
||With more than two distinct morphological variants.
||A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
||Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
||Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
||Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
||At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
||Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
||Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off.
||liten torn, børste
||A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
||Partly, in part.
||An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on.
||Trailing or spreading along the ground.
||A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
||Lying flat on the ground.
||Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
||The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies.
||Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
||Near to the organ's point of attachment.
||A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
||Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
||Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
||The hair covering.
||A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
||Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
||Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
||A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
||With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
||An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex.
||Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel.
||Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
||The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
||Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers.
||One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
||Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
||Turned or bent downward.
||With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
||Bent sharply backwards.
||When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
||A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
||Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
||Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
||Forming or covered with a network.
||Directed towards the proximal end.
||With a small incision in a round or blunt apex.
||Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface.
||Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
||Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
||Stiff, not flexible.
||An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
||A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
||A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
||Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming red" and "reddish").
||With a deeply wrinkled surface.
||With minutely wrinkled surface.
||Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
||With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf.
||Synonymous with stolon.
||Bag- or pouch-shaped.
||Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards.
||A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
||Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
||Synonymous with scabrid.
||A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
||A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
||With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
||Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
||A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
||A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
||A plant that grows only in shady places.
||Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
||A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young.
||Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
||Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
||One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
||The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
||Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
||Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
||Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
||The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
||Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
||i vid betydning
||In the broad sense.
||i trang/snever betydning
||In the narrow sense.
||One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
||Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
||Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
||A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
||Arranged in a row; serial buds are axillary, each one adaxial to the next older bud.
||Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
||Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward.
||Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
||A bristle or stiff hair.
||Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
||Beset with bristles.
||A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
||A young stem or branch.
||A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
||A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
||Bent like the letter S.
||A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
||A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
||Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
||Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions.
||The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
||A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
||A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis.
||A large bract surrounding an inflorescence (Araceae, Lemnaceae, Hydrocharitaceae).
||Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part.
||A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
||Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
||A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
||The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
||A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
||A small spine.
||With small spines.
||A body producing spores.
||A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
||A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
||The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
||A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
||Any narrow basal part of an organ.
||The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
||A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
||The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
||Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
||The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
||Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
||Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
||The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
||A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
||A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
||Stalked, borne on a stipe.
||Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
||A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
||A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
||Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
||In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
||Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
||A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
||Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
||With short, stiff hairs.
||A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
||In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
||The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
||A swelling on the top of the ovary (Apiaceae).
||Meaning almost, not completely.
||Growing under water.
||A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
||To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
||Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point.
||Fleshy and juicy.
||An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
||Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
||Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
||Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
||The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
||Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
||With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
||Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
||Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
||With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
||With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
||One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
||A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
||A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
||A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
||One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
||With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
||Circular in cross-section.
||At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
||A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate.
||The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
||A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
||Having four parts.
||Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
||A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
||The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
||An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
||A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
||The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
||An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
||Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
||A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
||Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
||Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
||Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross section.
||An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
||Having three sharp points at the apex.
||Having three leaves.
||Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate.
||A body triangular in section with rounded edges.
||Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
||With three different forms.
||A body triangular in section with sharp edges.
||Trowel-shaped; a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide.
||Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases).
||The single, central stem of a tree.
||A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
||A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
||A small blunt outgrowth.
||With small, smooth, blunt projections.
||Hollow and almost cylindrical.
||A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
||With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
||The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
||Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
||A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
||A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
||A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
||Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
||An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point.
||Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
||With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
||ubevepnet, uten torner, tornløs
||Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
||Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves.
||With the base contracted into a claw.
||Hollow, with one room.
||A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
||Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
||A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
||In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
||Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
||A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead).
||Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
||Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
||A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
||Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
||The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
||The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
||A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
||A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
||Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
||The pattern formed by the veins.
||The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
||Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
||When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement.
||Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis.
||Covered with blisters or small bladders.
||Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
||An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
||The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
||Covered with long, weak hairs.
||One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
||A purplish-blue colour.
||Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
||In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
||With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
||Having the texture of wood.
||Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
||Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
||A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
||With short, sharp turns from side to side.
||zygomorf, ensymmetrisk, monosymmetrisk
||With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.