english norwegian explanation
a- uten Without, lacking.
a-, ab- fra "Away from".
abiotic abiotisk Not involving living organisms.
abortive aborterende Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
abscission felle, felling The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
acaulescent stengelløs Stemless, or with no visible stem.
Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
achene akene A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
acicular nålformet Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed.
aciculate rispet Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
acrogynous topphunlig In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
acroscopic vendt mot spissen Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
actinomorphic radiærsymmmetrisk Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
aculeate vasstagget Prickly.
acuminate tilspisset Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
acute spiss Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides.
ad- mot "To", "towards".
adaxial adaksial Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
adnate tilvokst Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
adventitious adventiv- Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
adventive innført Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
aerial luft Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
aestivation knoppleie The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
agamospecies agamospecies, småart A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
agamospermy agamospermi The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
aggregate aggregat A clump or cluster; an aggregate fruit is a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower strawberry or raspberry; in taxonomy, an aggregate is an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship.
With wing-like appendages.
allele allele One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
allogamous allogam, med kryssbefruktning With allogamy.
allogamy allogami, kryssbefruktning Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
allopatric allopatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
allopolyploid allopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.

alternate alternerende, skruestilt Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals.
alternately pinnate alternerende finnet Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
alveolate smågropet With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
amphidiploid amfidiploid An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
amplexicaul stengelomfattende Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
analogous analog A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
anastomosing danne nettverk Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
androdioecious androdioik Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
androecium andrøsium The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
androgynophore androgynofor A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious.
andromonoecious andromonoik Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
androphore androfor A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
Dispersed by wind.
Pollinated by wind.
aneuploid aneuploid A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
angiosperm angiosperm, dekkfrøet plante A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
angular kantet Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
anisomerous uliketalig Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
annual annuell, ettårig A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year.
annulus annulus, ring A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
ante- for-, foran- Before, in front of.
anterior fremre In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
anther pollenknapp The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
anthesis blomstring The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
anthocyanin anthocyanin A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
antrorse fremoverrettet Directed towards the distal end.
apetalous kronløs Without petals.
apex spiss, topp The very tip of an organ.
apical toppstilt At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary.
apiculate broddspiss With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point.
apiculum broddspiss A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
apocarpous apokarp A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
apomictic apomiktisk A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apomixis apomixis Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apophysis apofyse A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
appendiculate med vedheng With small appendages.
appressed tiltrykt Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
Tree-like in growth or general appearance; applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
archegonium arkegonium In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
arcuate bøyd Curved like a bow.
The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
areolate rutemønstret Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
aril frøkappe A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
arista brodd, børste An awn or bristle.
aristate forsynt med børste/ brodd Having an awn or bristle at the tip.
articulate ledd-delt Jointed.
ascending oppstigende Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
asexual reproduction aseksuell formering The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
asperous ru Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
asymmetric asymmetrisk Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
auricle bladøre An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
auriculate med bladører With auricles.
autogamous autogam, sjølvbefrukter? With autogamy.
autogamy autogami, sjølbefruktning Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
autopolyploid autopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
awn snerp A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
axil bladhjørne The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary.
axillary aksillær, hjørnestilt In the axil.
axis hovedakse The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
basal basal, ved grunnen At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary.
basifixed basifix Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
basigynous topphannlig In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
basiscopic nedvendt Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
beak nebb A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
berry bær A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
bi- to- Two, twice.
biconvex bikonveks Convex on two sides.
bidentate dobbeltannet Ambiguous; use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
biennial bienn, toårig A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
bifid tokløvd Two-cleft.
bilabiate toleppet Two-lipped.
bilocular torommet Having two cavities.
bilomentum leddskulpe A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
binary name binert navn The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
bipartite todelt Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnate dobbeltfinnet Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate.
bisexual tokjønnet Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
bisymmetric bisymmetrisk Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
biternate dobbelt tredelt/trekoplet Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.
blade bladplate The expanded part of a leaf.
bloom voks, dogg A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
bract støtteblad A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
bracteate med støtteblad With bracts.
bracteole forblad A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
brevistylous kortgriftet Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
bud knopp An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
bud-scales knoppskjell Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
bulb lauk/løk A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
bulbil yngleknopp A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
bulbiliferous med yngleknopper With bulbils.
caducous avfallende Falling off at an early stage.
caespitose tuveformet Growing in tufts, tufted.
A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
callus kallus In the Poaceae used for the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
calyptra (rot)hette A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
calyx beger Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
campanulate klokkeformet Bell-shaped.
canaliculate furet With a longitudinal groove or channel.
capillary hårtynn, hårfin Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
capitulum korg, kurv An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae.
capsule kapsel A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
Synonymous with succulent.
carpel fruktblad The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
cartilaginous bruskaktig Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
caryopsis karyopse A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
catkin rakle A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible.
caudate haleformet Having a long tail-like tip or appendage.
A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae).
cauliflorous kauliflori Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
cauline stengel- Borne on the stem.
A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
A plant with winter buds above ground, but below 25 cm.
Having a papery consistency.
chasmogamous chasmogam Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
chlorotic klorotisk Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease.
choripetalous frikronet With the petals free from each other.
The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
ciliate kanthåret With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
circumscissile omkringskåret, -snittet Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
cladode fyllokladium A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.

clasping omsluttende Grasping, embracing.
clathrate nettformet With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
claw negl The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
clavate klubbeformet Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
cleistogamous kleistogam Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
climber klatreplante Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
clonal klondannende, klonal Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
clone klon Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
cochleariform skjeformet Concave like a spoon, spoon-like.
cochleate sneglehusformet Coiled like a snail-shell.
Of a seed coat covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
colpate kolpat Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
colporate kolporat Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
column griffelsøyle A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
columnar søyleformet Column-like.
commissure kommissur, sammenføying A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
complex kompleks An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very variable.
compound sammensatt The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times, e.g. compound umbel.
compressed sammentrykt Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
cone kongle A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
cone scale kongleskjell The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
confluent sammenflytende The running together of two parts into one, blending.
connate sammmenvokst Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
connective konnektiv The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
connivent sammenstøtende Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
conoidal omtrent konisk Almost cone-shaped.
contiguous som berører hverandre Touching at the edges with no gap between.
contorted dreidd, vridd Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
contracted sammentrukket Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
convolute sammenrullet Rolled up longitudinally.
cordate hjerteformet Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base.
Shaped like a heart, in outline.
coriaceous læraktig Of a leathery texture.
corm knoll A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
corolla krone Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
corona korona, bikrone A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
coronal scales
Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
corymb halvskjerm A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence.
Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence.
costa midtnerve i småblad/finne The midrib or rachis of a pinna.
costule midtnerve i småfinne In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule.
cotyledon frøblad, kimblad The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
crenate rundtannet Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth.
crenulate fint rundtannet Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
crested forsynt med kam With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers.
crimson høyrød A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
crispate kruset Curly, wavy or crinkled.
cross fertilization kryssbefruktning Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
cross pollination krysspollinering The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
crown (tre)krone The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
crozier bispestav A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
crustaceous skorpeaktig Hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam kryptogam, sporeplante A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
Hooded, hood-shaped.
culm strå The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
cuneate kileformet Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides).
cupule cupula, skål A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
cuspidate broddspiss Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point.
cylindrical sylindrisk Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section.
Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular.
cyme kvast An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it.
cymose kvastformet Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud.
cypsela kypsela A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
decaploid dekaploid Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
deciduous lauvfellende Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
decumbent nedliggende Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
decurrent nedløpende Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
decussate korsvis motsatt Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other.
deflexed nedbøyd Bent sharply downwards.
dehiscent som opner seg Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
deltoid 'deltoid' Pyramid-shaped.
dendroid dendroid Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
dentate tannet Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards.
denticulate fint tannet, småtannet Minutely toothed.
depauperate redusert Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
depressed flattrykt Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
descending nedstigende Having a direction gradually downwards.
determinate bestemt Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (Fabaceae).
dichasium dobbeltkvast A cyme with two branches from each node.
dichogamy dikogami Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
dichotomous dikotom, gaffeldelt Branching by forking into two equal branches.
dicotyledon tofrøbladet A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
digitate koplet Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand.
dilated utvidet Expanded, widened.
dimorphic dimorf With two different forms.
dioecious særbu Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
diploid diploid Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
disc diskus Anything disc-shaped, e.g. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
dissected fliket Divided into segments.
distal distal, ytterst Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
distichous toradet Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem.
Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
divaricate utsperret Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
divergent divergerende Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart than their bases.
dormancy hvile A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
dorsifixed dorsifix Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
dorsiventral dorsiventral Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
doubly dentate dobbeltannet Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
doubly serrate dobbelt sagtannet Serrate with small teeth on the large ones.
drooping slapt hengende, nikkende Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe.
drupe steinfrukt A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
duplicato-dentate dobbeltannet Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth.
dwarf-shrub dvergbusk, ris Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
e-, ex- uten Without, lacking; from, out of, away from.
ebracteate uten støtteblad Without bracts.
echinate pigget Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
ecotype økotype A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
ectotrophic mycorrhiza ektotrof mykorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
eglandular uten kjertler Without glands.
elaiosome elaiosom An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
elater elater In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
electrophoresis elektroforese Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
ellipsoid ellipsoid A solid shape elliptic in side view.
elliptic elliptisk A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic.
elodeid langskuddplanter Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
elongated utdratt, forlenget Prolonged, extended, notably long.
emarginate utrandet With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex.
embryo embryo A young plant contained within the seed.
enclosed innelukket Not protruding.
endocarp endokarp The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
endosperm endosperm, frøkvite The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
endotrophic mycorrhiza endotrof mykorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
endozoochorous endozoochor Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
ensiform sverdformet Sword-shaped.
entire hel Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected.
epi- på- upon, on top of or added to.
epicalyx ytterbeger A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
Associated with the epidermis.
epidermis epidermis The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
epigeal epigeisk, overjordisk Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
epigynous oversittende, epigyn Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
epiphyte epifytt A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
epizoochorous epizoochor Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
erect opprett Upright, directed strictly upwards.
erectopatent skrått rettet oppover Directed obliquely upwards.
erose småfrynset Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded.
evergreen eviggrønn Bearing leaves throughout the year.
exine exine The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
exocarp exokarp The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
exserted utstikkende Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
exstipulate uten stipler/øreblad Without stipules.
Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
extrorse utad, ekstrors Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
facultative fakultativ Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
falcate sigdformet Sickle-shaped.
farinose mjølet Mealy.
fascicle bunt A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
fasciculate i bunter Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
fertile fertil Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
fertilization befruktning The union of male and female gametes.
fibrous trevlet, fibrøs Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
fibrous roots trevlerøtter A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
filament pollentråd A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
filiform trådformet Threadlike, slender and elongated.
fimbriate frynset Fringed.
fissured oppsprukket With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
fistulose rørformet Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
flaccid slapp Limp, unable to support its own weight.
fleshy kjøttfull
flexible bøyelig Pliable.
flexuous bølget Of a stem or hair, wavy.
floccose - Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
floriferous med blomster Bearing flowers.
flower blomst The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
foliaceous bladformet Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
follicle belgkapsel A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion (Ranunculaceae).
foveate gropet Pitted.
foveolate smågropet Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
free frie When applied to floral organs: not fused.
free-central fri sentral Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary.
A large, divided leaf.
fruit frukt Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
fruticose buskformet Shrub-like (woody).
funicle frøstreng The stalk of an ovule.
fusiform teinformet Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
gamete gamet A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
gametophyte gametofytt The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
geitonogamy nabopollinering Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
Synonymous with bulbil.
With gemmae (bulbils).
geniculate knebøyd Abruptly bent like a knee.
genome genom A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
genotype genotype The total set of genes in an individual.
genus slekt A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
geophyte geofytt A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
gibbous puklet With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
glabrous snau Without hairs.
gland kjertel A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
glandular med kjertler, kjertel- Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
glandular hair kjertelhår A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
globose kuleformet Spherical.
A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
glumaceous skjellformet Glume-like.
glume ytteragne One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
granulose kornet, grynet With a sand-like surface structure.
group gruppe Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
gymnosperm nakenfrøet A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
gynobasic gynobasisk A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in the Lamiaceae.
gynodioecious gynodioik Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
gynoecium gynøsium The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
gynomonoecious gynomonoik Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
gynophore gynofor A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
gynostegium gynostegium A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column.
habit habitus, utseende The general appearance of a plant.
habitat habitat, voksested The environment in which a plant lives.
halophyte halofytt, saltplante A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
Barbed or hooked at the apex.
hapaxanthous hapaxant A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
haploid haploid Having a single set of chromosomes.
hastate spydformet Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards.
head hode A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster.
helicoid skrueformet Coiled.
helicoid cyme skruekvast A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side.
helophyte sumpplante A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
hemi- halv- Half-.
hemicryptophyte hemikryptofytt A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
herb urt A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
herbaceous urteaktig Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
herkogamy herkogami Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
hermaphroditic hermafroditisk, tokjønnet Bisexual.
hetero- ulike Different, other, uneven.
heteroblastic heteroblastisk Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
heterophyllous heterofylli Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
heterosporous heterospori Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
heterostylous heterostyl Of species having heterostyly.
hexaploid hexaploid Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
hilum frønavle The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
hirsute ruhåret With long, coarse, rough hairs.
hispid stivhåret With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
holotype holotype A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
homo- like like, of the same kind.
homogamous homogam With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
homologous homolog Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
homosporous homospor Having spores all of one kind, as most pteridophytes.
homostylous homostyl Not heterostylous.
hooded hetteformet, hjelmformet With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
hyaline hinneaktig, hyalin Colourless and transparent.
hydrochorous vandspredt Dispersed by water.
Pollinated in water.
hydrophyte vannplante A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
hypanthium underbeger A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
hypo- under- Below, under, beneath.
relating to the hypodermis.
hypodermis hypodermis A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
hypogeal underjordisk, hypogeisk Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
hypogynous undersittende Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
imbricate taklagt Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
imparipinnate ulikefinnet Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet.
inbreeding innavl The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
incised innskåret Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly.
inclining tillbakebøyd Bending downwards.
incrassate fortykket Thickened or swollen.
indehiscent som ikke åpner seg Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
indumentum behåring The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
induplicate innfoldet Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
indusium slør A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
inferior undersittende Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
inflated oppblåst Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
inflexed skarpt innbøyd Bent sharply inwards.
inflorescence blomsterstand A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles.
Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
infructescence fruktstand A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
inserted tilfestet Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
integument integument, frøhinne One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
internode internodium The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence.
interrupted avbrutt Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
interruptedly pinnate mellombrutt finnet With alternating large and small leaflets.
intine intine The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
introgression introgresjon The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
introrse intrors, innad Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
involucre svøp A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
involute innrullet Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface.
Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
isoëtid bunnskuddplante A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
isomerous liketallig Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
isotype isotype A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
juvenile juvenil Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
karyotype karyotype The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
keel kjøl A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
keeled kjølet Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
labellum leppe A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
labiate med leppe Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
lacerate oppfliset Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn.
lacinia frynser A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
laciniate smalfliket Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
lamina plate The blade of a leaf or petal.
lanate ullhåret Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs.
lanceolate lansettformet Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle.
lateral roots siderøtter Roots arising from the main root.
latex mjølkesaft Milky fluid, usually whitish.
lax grissen Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
leaf blad An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
leaflet småblad Each unit of a compound leaf.
lectotype lektotype A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description, to serve in place of a holotype which is missing or has been destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod.
lemma inneragne In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
lemnid flyteplante An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
lenticular linseformet Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
liana liane A climbing, woody plant.
ligulate ? With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
ligule slirehinne A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes.
limb krage, brem The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
linear linjeformet, lineær Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1.
lingulate tungeformet Tongue-shaped.
lip leppe One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
lobe flik A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
lobed fliket Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
loculicidal romdelende Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.
loculus smårom
locus rom, lokalitet
lomentum leddskolm, leddbelg A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
longistylous langgriflet, longistyl Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
long-shoot langskudd A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
lyrate lyreformet Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
lyrato- lyre- As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
macro- stor- Large.
magenta rødfiolett A dark purplish-red colour.
Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
marginal kantstilt At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture.
An aggregation of pollen or spores.
mauve lilla A pale purple colour.
medifixed midtfestet Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
mega- stor Large.
megaspore megaspore, storspore In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
meiosis meiose A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
membranous hinneaktig Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
mericarp delfrukt A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units (e.g., Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae).
-merous -tallig The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
meso- mellom- Middle.
mesocarp mesokarp The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
micro- små- Small.
microspore mikrospore, småspore In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
midrib midtnerve The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
mitosis mitose A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
monadelphous - Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
mono- en- One-.
monochasium ensidig kvast A cyme with one branch from each node.
monocotyledon enfrøbladet A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
monoecious enkjønnet, monøsisk Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
monolete monolet Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
monophyletic monofyletisk A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
monopodial monopodial With a persistent terminal growing point.
monothecal enrommet With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
monotypic monotypisk With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
mucro brodd, odd A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
mucronate broddspiss Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point.
With numerous nodes.
muricate ruglete Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
muticous butt, snerplaus Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
mycorrhiza mykorrhiza A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
Dispersed by ants.
naked naken Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
nanophanerophyte nanofanerofytt A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
navicular båtformet Boat-shaped.
nectariferous med nektar Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
nectary nektarium A nectar-secreting organ.
neotype neotype A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
nerve nerve, åre Synonymous with vein.
Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming black" and "blackish").
nocturnal nattblomstrende Nightly.
nodding nikkende Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
node ledd The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
nomen conservandum
A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
nomen illegitimum
A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
nomen nudum
A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
nomen rejiciendum
A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
nucellus nucellus The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
nut nøtt A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
nymphaeid flytebladplante A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
ob- omvendt The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
obconical omvendt konisk, kjegleformet Conical but attached at the narrower end.
obcordate omvendt hjerteformet Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
oblate tverroval Almost circular but wider than long.
obligate obligat Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy.
oblique skjev With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
oblong avlang A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong.
obovate omvendt eggformet A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate.
obtuse butt Blunt or rounded at apex.
ochrea ochrea A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae.
ochreola - A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
opaque ugjenomskinnelig, matt Dull, non-translucent.
operculum lokk A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
opposite motsatt Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
orbicular sirkelrund A flat shape, circular in outline.
orifice åpning The opening, the mouth.
outbreeding utkryssende The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
outcrossing krysspollinering Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
ovary fruktknute The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
ovate eggrund Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects): widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate.
ovoid eggformet A solid shape with the form of an egg.
ovule frøemne Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
ovuliferous scale kongleskjell A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
palate svelgpukkel A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
palea forblad In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
palmate handfliket Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base.
palmatisect handdelt Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
panduriform fiolinformet Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle.
panicle topp A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence.
papery papiraktig Having a papery consistency.
papilla papill A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
papillose papilløs Covered with papillae.
pappus fnokk, pappus Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit (Asteraceae).
paraphyletic parafyletisk A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
paraphyses parafyser Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
parasite parasitt An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
parenchyma parenkym Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
parietal parietal, randstilt Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary.
paripinnate likefinnet Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet.
partial inflorescence delblomsterstand A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
-partite delt Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
patent sprikende Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
pectinate kamformet Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
pedicel blomsterstilk/skaft The stalk of the individual flower.
pedicellate skaftet Stalked (of flowers).
peduncle blomsterstandstilk/skaft The stalk of an inflorescense; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
pedunculate skaftet Stalked (of inflorescences).
peltate skjoldformet Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk.
pendent hengende Hanging down.
pentamerous femtalig Having five parts.
pentaploid pentaploid Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
perennial perenn, flerårig A plant that lives for more than two years.
perfoliate stengelomfattende Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.
perianth blomsterdekke The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
perianth segment blomsterblad The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished.
pericarp fruktvegg The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
perigynous omkringsittende Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
periodically serrate
Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others.
perisperm perisperm Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
perispore perispor A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
perpendicular loddrett, vertikal Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
persistent varig Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
petal kronblad One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured.
petaloid kronbladliknende Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
petiolate skaftet With a petiole, not sessile.
petiole bladstilk/skaft The stalk of a leaf.
petiolulate skaftet With stalked leaflets.
petiolule småbladstilk/skaft The stalk of a leaflet.
phanerogam fanerogam, frøplante A plant reproducing by seeds.
phanerophyte fanerofytt A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
phenotype fenotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
phyllary korgdekkblad Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
Synonymous with cladode.
phyllode fyllodium A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
phylogeny fylogeni The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
pilose mjukhåret Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
pinna finne The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules.
pinnate finnet Divided into pinnae.
pinnatifid fjærfliket Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib.
pinnatisect fjærdelt Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.
pinnule småfinne A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments.
pistil fruktknute The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
pistillate hunnlig Female (of flowers).
A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
placenta frøstol, plasenta The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
placentation plasentasjon The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.
plastic plastisk Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
pleiochasium pleiochasium A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
pleiotropy pleiotropi The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
plicate foldet Folded.
plumose fjørformet Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
plurilocular flerrommet Hollow, with more than two rooms.
pod belg, skolm A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
pollen pollen The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
pollinarium pollinarium The pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination (Asclepiadaceae).
pollinium pollinium In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
poly- mange Many.
polychronic polykron Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
polygamous polygam With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphic polymorf, mangeformet With more than two distinct morphological variants.
polyphyletic polyfyletisk A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
polyploid polyploid Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
polytopic polytop Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
porate porat Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
post- efter- After, behind.
At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
precocious for tidlig Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
premorse avskåren Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off.
prickle liten torn, børste A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
pro parte delvis Partly, in part.
process utvekst An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on.
procumbent nedliggende Trailing or spreading along the ground.
propagule diaspor, spredningsenhet A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prostrate krypende Lying flat on the ground.
protandrous førsthannlig, protandrisk Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies.
protogynous førsthunnlig, protogyn Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
proximal proximal Near to the organ's point of attachment.
pseudanthium pseudanthium A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
pteridophytes karsporeplanter Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
puberulent finhåret Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
pubescence behåring The hair covering.
pubescent dunhåret Hairy.
pulvinate polsterformet Cushion-shaped.
A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
punctate prikket Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
pungent stikkende Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
purple purpur A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
pyriform pæreformet Pear-shaped.
quadrangular firkantet With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
raceme klase An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex.
racemose klaseformet Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel.
Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
rachis hovedakse The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
radiate radierende, utstrålende Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers.
radical låg- Basal.
ramet ramet One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
ray stråle Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
reclining bakoverbøyd Turned or bent downward.
recurved tilbakebøyd Bent backwards.
reduplicate utfoldet With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
reflexed kraftig tilbakebøyd Bent sharply backwards.
reniform nyreformet Kidney-shaped.
repand grunt buktete When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
resin kvæ, resin A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
resin duct resinkanal Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
resinous kvæliknende Resin-like.
resupinate omvendt, resupinat Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
reticulate nettåret Forming or covered with a network.
retrorse bakoverbøyd Directed towards the proximal end.
retuse grunt utrandet With a small incision in a round or blunt apex.
revolute bakoverrullet Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface.
rhizomatous med jordstengel Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
rhizome jordstengel Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
rigid stiv Stiff, not flexible.
rootstock rotstokk An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
rosette rosett A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
rostellum rostellum A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming red" and "reddish").
rugose rynket With a deeply wrinkled surface.
rugulose smårynket With minutely wrinkled surface.
Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
runcinate høvelformet With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf.
runner utløper Synonymous with stolon.
saccate sekkformet Bag- or pouch-shaped.
sagittate pilformet Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards.
saprophyte saprofytt A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
scabrid fint ru Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
Minutely roughened.
Synonymous with scabrid.
scale skjell A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
scape stengel, skaft A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
scapose med skaft With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
scarious hinneaktig Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
scarlet skarlagensrød A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
schizocarp spaltfrukt A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
sciophyte skyggeplante A plant that grows only in shady places.
sclerenchyma sklerenkym Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
scorpioid cyme svikkel, siksakkvast A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young.
scrambler slyngplante Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
scutate skjoldformet Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
secund ensidig One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
seed frø The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
self-compatible sjølfertil Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
self-fertilization sjølbefruktning Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
self-incompatible sjølinkompatibel Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
self-pollination sjøl-pollinering The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
semi- halv- Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
sensu lato i vid betydning In the broad sense.
sensu stricto i trang/snever betydning In the narrow sense.
sepal begerblad One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
sepaloid begerbladliknende Sepal-like.
septicidal skilleveggdelende Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
septifragous skilleveggbrytende Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
septum skillevegg A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
serial seriell Arranged in a row; serial buds are axillary, each one adaxial to the next older bud.
sericeous silkehåret Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
serrate sagtannet Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward.
serrulate fint sagtannet Minutely serrate.
sessile sittende Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
seta børstehår A bristle or stiff hair.
setaceous børsteformet Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
Beset with bristles.
sheath slire A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
shoot skudd A young stem or branch.
short-shoot kortskudd A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
shrub busk A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
sigmoid S-formet Bent like the letter S.
silicula kortskulpe A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
siliqua langskulpe A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
simple enkel Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
sinuate buktet Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions.
sinus innbuktning The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
solitary enkeltvis Borne singly.
sorus sorus, sporehushop A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
spadix kolbe A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis.
spathe hylsterblad A large bract surrounding an inflorescence (Araceae, Lemnaceae, Hydrocharitaceae).
spathulate spadeformet, spatelformet Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part.
species art
spermatophyte frøplante A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
spike aks A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
spikelet småaks The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
spine torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
spinose tornet With spines.
spinule liten torn A small spine.
spinulose småtornet With small spines.
sporangium sporangium, sporehus A body producing spores.
spore spore A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
sporophyll sporofyll A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
sporophyte sporofytt The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
spur spore A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
stalk skaft, stilk Any narrow basal part of an organ.
stamen pollenbærer The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
staminode staminodium A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
standard fane The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
stellate stjerneformet Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
stem stengel The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
stem-clasping stengelomfattende Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
sterile steril Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
stigma arr The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
stipe skaft A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
stipel øreblad A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
stipitate skaftet Stalked, borne on a stipe.
With stipules.
stipule øreblad Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
stolon utløper A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
stoloniferous med utløpere Bearing stolons.
stoma spalteåpning A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
stomatiferous med spalteåpninger With stomata.
straggling - Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
stria vedåser In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
striate stripete Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
striation stripete A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
strigose strihåret Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
With short, stiff hairs.
strophiole strophiole A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
stylar part stylarledd In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
style griffel The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
stylopodium griffelfot A swelling on the top of the ovary (Apiaceae).
sub- nesten Meaning almost, not completely.
submerged nedsenket, submers Growing under water.
subshrub halvbusk A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
subtend støtte To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
subulate sylformet Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point.
succulent sukkulent, kjøttfull Fleshy and juicy.
sucker rotskudd An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
sulcate furete Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
superior oversittende Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
suture søm The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
sympatric sympatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
sympetalous samkronet, helkronet With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
sympodial sympodial Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
syncarpous synkarp Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
synsepalous synsepal With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntepalous syntepal With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntype syntype One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
taproot pælerot A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
taxon taxon, takson A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
tendril slyngtråd A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
tepal blomsterblad, tepal One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
teratologic teratologisk With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
terete trinn Circular in cross-section.
terminal endestilt At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
ternate trekoplet A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate.
testa frøskall The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
tetrad tetrade A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
tetramerous tetramer, firetallig Having four parts.
tetraploid tetraploid Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
thallus thallus A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
theca pollenknapphalvdel, theca The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
therophyte terofytt An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
thorn torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
throat svelg The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
thyrse dusk, thyrsus An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
tomentose filthåret Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
triangular triangulær, trekantet Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross section.
trichome trikom An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
tricuspidate tretannet Having three sharp points at the apex.
trifid trekløvd Three-cleft.
Having three leaves.
trifoliolate trekoplet Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate.
trigonous butt trekantet A body triangular in section with rounded edges.
Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
trimorphic trimorf With three different forms.
triquetrous kvasst trekantet A body triangular in section with sharp edges.
trullate - Trowel-shaped; a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide.
truncate tverr Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases).
trunk stamme The single, central stem of a tree.
tube rør A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
tuber knoll A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
tubercle liten vorte A small blunt outgrowth.
tuberculate småvortet With small, smooth, blunt projections.
tuberous knollformet Tuber-like.
tubular rørformet Hollow and almost cylindrical.
tuft tue A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
tufted tueformet With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
tunic tunika The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
turgid svullen, oppsvulmet Swollen.
turion turion A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
twig kvist A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
twiner slyngplante A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
twining slyngende Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
umbel skjerm An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point.
umbo navle Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
umbonate navlet With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
unarmed ubevepnet, uten torner, tornløs Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
undulate bølget Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves.
With the base contracted into a claw.
uni- en- One-.
unilocular enrommet Hollow, with one room.
unisexual enkjønnet A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
urceolate krukkeformet Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
utricle fruktgjemme, utriculus A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
valvar part valvarledd In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
valvate kantlagt Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead).
variant variant Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
variegated broket Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
vascular plant karplante A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
wedge-shaped kileformet Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
vegetative vegetativ The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
vegetative dispersal vegetativ spredning The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
vegetative reproduction vegetativ formering A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
vein nerve, åre A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
velutinous fløyelshåret Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
venation nervatur The pattern formed by the veins.
vernation knoppleie The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
verrucose vortet Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
versatile bevegelig When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement.
verticillate kransstilt Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis.
vesicular blæreformet Bladderlike.
vesiculose med blærer Covered with blisters or small bladders.
vestigial rudimentær Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
whorl krans An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
vicariance vikarians The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
villous lodden Covered with long, weak hairs.
wing vinge One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
violet fiolett A purplish-blue colour.
viscid klebrig, klisset Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
viscidium viscidium, klebeskive In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
viviparous vivipar With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
woody forvedet Having the texture of wood.
Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
xenogamy xenogami Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
xerophyte xerofytt A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
zigzag sik-sak With short, sharp turns from side to side.
zygomorphic zygomorf, ensymmetrisk, monosymmetrisk With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.