english icelandic explanation
a- án Without, lacking.
a-, ab- frá "Away from".
abiotic lífvana Not involving living organisms.
abortive sem misferst Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
abscission fall The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
acaulescent stilklaus Stemless, or with no visible stem.
accrescent vex áfram Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
achene hneta A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
acicular nállaga Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed.
aciculate strikóttur Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
acrogynous með kvenblóm efst í axi In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
acroscopic sem snýr að oddi, enda Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
actinomorphic reglulegur Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
aculeate hvassyddur Prickly.
acuminate langyddur Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
acute yddur Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides.
ad- að, til "To", "towards".
adaxial efri-, efra-, cf. efrihlið, efraborð Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
adnate samvaxinn Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
adventitious hjá- Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
adventive aðkominn Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
aerial loft- Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
aestivation brumlega The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
agamospecies tegund sem æxlast kynlaust A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
agamospermy kynlaus fræmyndun, meyfræmyndun The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
aggregate samsafn A clump or cluster; an aggregate fruit is a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower strawberry or raspberry; in taxonomy, an aggregate is an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship.
alate vængjaður With wing-like appendages.
allele samsæta One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
allogamous með aðfrjóvgun With allogamy.
allogamy aðfrævun Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
allopatric sérsvæða, sérlendur Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
allopolyploid blandaður fjöllitningur A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
allotetraploid blandaður fjórlitningur
alternate stakstæður Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals.
alternately pinnate víxlfjaðraður Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
alveolate smáholóttur With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
amphidiploid blandaður tvílitningur An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
amplexicaul greipfættur Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
analogous hliðstæður, samsvarandi A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
anastomosing netgreining Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
androdioecious með karl- og tvíkynjablóm á aðskildum plöntum Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
androecium karlbú The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
androgynophore frævla-stílsúla A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
androgynous sambýlisplanta Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious.
andromonoecious með karl- og tvíkynjablóm á sömu plöntu Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
androphore fræflasúla A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
anemochorous dreifist með vindi Dispersed by wind.
anemophilous vindfrævaður Pollinated by wind.
aneuploid mislitna A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
angiosperm dulfrævingur A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
angular strendur Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
anisomerous með mismörgum hlutum Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
annual einær A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year.
annulus hringur A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
ante- fyrir, fyrir framan Before, in front of.
anterior fremri In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
anther frjóhnappur The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
anthesis blómgun The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
anthocyanin antósýanín A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
antrorse vísar fram Directed towards the distal end.
apetalous krónulaus Without petals.
apex oddur, endi, toppur The very tip of an organ.
apical enda-, cf. endastæður At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary.
apiculate broddyddur With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point.
apiculum stuttur oddur A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
apocarpous með ósamvöxnum fræblöðum A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
apomictic planta sem æxlast kynlaust A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apomixis kynlaus æxlun Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apophysis ? A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
appendiculate með útvexti With small appendages.
appressed aðlægur Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
arborescent trélíkur Tree-like in growth or general appearance; applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
archegonium egghirsla In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
arcuate boginn Curved like a bow.
areola reitur The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
areolate reitaður, reitskiptur Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
aril frækápa A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
arista týta An awn or bristle.
aristate með týtum Having an awn or bristle at the tip.
articulate liðaður, liðskiptur Jointed.
ascending uppsveigður Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
asexual reproduction kynlaus æxlun The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
asperous snarpur Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
asymmetric óreglulegur Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
auricle blaðeyra An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
auriculate með blaðeyru With auricles.
autogamous sjálfsfrjóvgaður With autogamy.
autogamy sjálfsfrjóvgun Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
autopolyploid sjálfsfjöllitna tegund A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
awn týta A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
axil blaðöxl The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
axile miðlægur On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary.
axillary axlar-, cf. axlarbrum, axlarstæður In the axil.
axis aðalstofn, eða leggur The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
basal grunn- At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary.
basifixed grunntengdur Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
basigynous með kvenblóm við axgrunn In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
basiscopic vísar niður Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
beak trjóna, trýni A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
berry ber A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
bi- tví-, tvisvar Two, twice.
biconvex tvíkúptur Convex on two sides.
bidentate tvítenntur Ambiguous; use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
biennial tvíiær A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
bifid tvíklofinn Two-cleft.
bilabiate tvívara Two-lipped.
bilocular tvírýmdur Having two cavities.
bilomentum liðaldin A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
binary name tvíliða nafn The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
bipartite tvískiptur, klofinn Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnate tvífjaðraður Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate.
bisexual tvíkynja Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
bisymmetric tvísamhverfur Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
biternate tvífingraður Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.
blade blaðka The expanded part of a leaf.
bloom vaxkennt lag A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
bract stoðblað A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
bracteate með stoðblöð With bracts.
bracteole forblað A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
brevistylous stílstuttur Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
bud brum, knappur An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
bud-scales brumhlífar Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
bulb laukur A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
bulbil æxlilaukur A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
bulbiliferous með æxlilaukum With bulbils.
caducous skammær Falling off at an early stage.
caespitose þýfinn, þúfulaga Growing in tufts, tufted.
callosity ? A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
callus harðnaður vefur In the Poaceae used for the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
calyptra rótarbjörg A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
calyx bikar Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
campanulate bjöllulaga Bell-shaped.
canaliculate grópaður With a longitudinal groove or channel.
capillary hárfínn Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
capitulum kollur, karfa An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae.
capsule hýði A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
carnose kjötkenndur Synonymous with succulent.
carpel fræblað The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
cartilaginous brjóskkenndur Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
caryopsis korn, grasaldin A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
catkin rekill A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible.
caudate með rófulaga sepa Having a long tail-like tip or appendage.
caudicle kökkþráður A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae).
cauliflorous viðarborin (blóm, aldin) Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
cauline stöngul- Borne on the stem.
ceratophyllid flotplanta A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
chamaephyte runn- eða þófaplanta A plant with winter buds above ground, but below 25 cm.
chartaceous pappírskenndur Having a papery consistency.
chasmogamous með blómum sem opnast snemma Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
chlorotic skortir blaðgrænu Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease.
choripetalous lauskrýndur With the petals free from each other.
chorology útbreiðslufræði The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
ciliate randhærður With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
circinate hringvafinn Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
circumscissile kringskorinn Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
cirrhose endar í bugðóttum eða gormlaga þræði Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
cladode blaðlíkur stöngull A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.
cladophyll blaðlíkur stöngull
clasping lykur um, greipfættur Grasping, embracing.
clathrate með smágötum eða rifum With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
claw nögl The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
clavate kylfulaga Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
cleistogamous knappfrævaður Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
climber klifurplanta Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
clonal klónmyndandi Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
clone klóni Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
cochlear hvelfdur Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
cochleariform spónlaga Concave like a spoon, spoon-like.
cochleate snígillaga Coiled like a snail-shell.
colliculate smáörðóttur Of a seed coat covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
colpate frjókorn með striklaga spírunarop á veggnum Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
colporate frjókorn með striklaga op á útveggnum og kringlótt op á innveggnum Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
column súla samvaxinna frjóþráða og frævustíla A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
columnar súlulaga Column-like.
commissure samskeyti, saumur A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
complex safn An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very variable.
compound samsettur The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times, e.g. compound umbel.
compressed hliðflatur Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
cone köngull A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
cone scale hreisturblað The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
confluent samfestur, samrunninn The running together of two parts into one, blending.
connate samvaxinn Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
connective hnapptengi The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
connivent aðlægur Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
conoidal nærri köngullaga Almost cone-shaped.
contiguous samlægur Touching at the edges with no gap between.
contorted snúinn Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
contracted samandreginn Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
convolute samanvafinn, slíðurlaga Rolled up longitudinally.
cordate hjartalaga Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base.
cordiform hjartalaga Shaped like a heart, in outline.
coriaceous leðurkenndur Of a leathery texture.
corm jarðstöngulhnýði A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
corolla króna Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
corona hjákróna A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
coronal scales hjákrónuflipar Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
corymb hálfsveipur A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence.
corymbose sveiplaga Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence.
costa miðstrengur bleðils The midrib or rachis of a pinna.
costule miðstrengur hliðarbleðils In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule.
cotyledon kímblað The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
crenate bogtenntur Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth.
crenulate smábogtenntur Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
crested með kambi With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers.
crimson fagurrauður A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
crispate hrokkinn Curly, wavy or crinkled.
cross fertilization víxlfrjóvgun Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
cross pollination víxlfrævun The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
crown króna The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
crozier bagall A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
crustaceous hrúðurkenndur Hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam gróplanta A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
cucullate hattlaga Hooded, hood-shaped.
culm strá The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
cuneate fleyglaga Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides).
cupule skál, aldinskál A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
cuspidate snöggyddur Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point.
cylindrical sívalur Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section.
cymbiform bátslaga Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular.
cyme skúfur An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it.
cymose skúfleitur Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud.
cypsela hnotkennt aldin körfublóma A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
cystolith kalkarða An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
decaploid tílitna Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
deciduous sumargrænn Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
decumbent jarðlægur Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
decurrent niðurteygður Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
decussate krossgagnstæður Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other.
deflexed niðurorpinn, útorpinn Bent sharply downwards.
dehiscent opnast fyrir dreifingu Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
deltoid þríhyrndur Pyramid-shaped.
dendroid trjálaga Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
dentate tenntur Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards.
denticulate smátenntur Minutely toothed.
depauperate vanþroskaður Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
depressed niðurbældur Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
descending niðursveigður Having a direction gradually downwards.
determinate ráðinn vöxtur Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
diadelphous allir frævlar nema einn samvaxnir í pípu Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (Fabaceae).
dichasium kvíslskúfur A cyme with two branches from each node.
dichogamy miskynþroski Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
dichotomous gaffalgreindur Branching by forking into two equal branches.
dicotyledon tvíkímblöðungur A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
digitate fingraður Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand.
dilated útflattur Expanded, widened.
dimorphic tvíbrigða With two different forms.
dioecious sérbýli Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
diploid tvílitna Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
disc diskur, stétt Anything disc-shaped, e.g. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
discoid disklaga Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
dissected skiptur Divided into segments.
distal fjær, ytri-, yst Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
distichous tvíraða Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem.
dithecal tvírýmdur Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
diurnal birtuháður Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
divaricate útstæður Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
divergent sundurleitnir Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart than their bases.
dormancy dvali, dá A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
dorsifixed baktengdur Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
dorsiventral mishliða Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
doubly dentate tvítenntur Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
doubly serrate tvísagtenntur Serrate with small teeth on the large ones.
drooping drúpandi Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
drupaceous steinaldinkenndur Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe.
drupe steinaldin A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
duplicato-dentate tvítenntur Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth.
dwarf-shrub smárunni, lyng, hrís Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
e-, ex- án, utan Without, lacking; from, out of, away from.
ebracteate stoðblaðalaus Without bracts.
echinate göddóttur Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
ecotype staðbrigði, kvæmi A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
ectotrophic mycorrhiza ytri svepprót Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
eglandular kirtilháralaus Without glands.
elaiosome fitukirtill An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
elater grógormur In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
electrophoresis rafdráttur Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
ellipsoid sporlaga, sporbaugóttur A solid shape elliptic in side view.
elliptic sporlaga, oddbaugóttur A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic.
elodeid rótlausar flækjuplöntur Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
elongated ílangur Prolonged, extended, notably long.
emarginate sýldur With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex.
embryo kím, fóstur A young plant contained within the seed.
enclosed inniluktur Not protruding.
endocarp innlag aldinveggs The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
endosperm fræhvíta The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
endotrophic mycorrhiza innri svepprót Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
endozoochorous innvortis dýradreifing Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
ensiform sverðlaga Sword-shaped.
entire heilrendur, heill Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected.
entomophilous skordýrafrævaður Insect-pollinated.
epi- á, ofan á, yfir- upon, on top of or added to.
epicalyx utanbikar A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
epidermal tengt yfirhúð Associated with the epidermis.
epidermis yfirhúð The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
epigeal ofanjarðar Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
epigynous yfirsætinn Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
epiphyte ásæta A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
epizoochorous útvortis dýradreifing Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
erect uppréttur Upright, directed strictly upwards.
erectopatent skástæður Directed obliquely upwards.
erose tirjóttur Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded.
evergreen sígrænn Bearing leaves throughout the year.
exine útlag frjókorns The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
exocarp útlag aldinveggs The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
exserted útstæður Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
exstipulate axlablaðalaus Without stipules.
extrafloral utanblóms Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
extrorse opnast ytramegin Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
facial að framan At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
facultative valbundin Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
falcate sigðlaga Sickle-shaped.
farinose mélaður Mealy.
fascicle knippi A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
fasciculate í knippum Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
fastigiate vandarlaga With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
fertile frjór Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
fertilization frjóvgun The union of male and female gametes.
fibrous trefjóttur Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
fibrous roots trefjarætur A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
filament hnappþráður A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
filiform þráðlaga Threadlike, slender and elongated.
fimbriate kögraður Fringed.
fissured hrufóttur With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
fistulose pípulaga Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
flaccid slakur, linur, mjúkur Limp, unable to support its own weight.
fleshy kjötkenndur
flexible sveigjanlegur Pliable.
flexuous bugðóttur Of a stem or hair, wavy.
floccose dúskhærður Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
floriferous með blómum, blómstrandi Bearing flowers.
flower blóm The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
foliaceous blaðlaga Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
follicle belghýði A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion (Ranunculaceae).
foveate holóttur Pitted.
foveolate smáhollóttur Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
free laus When applied to floral organs: not fused.
free-central fræsæti miðstæð Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary.
frond blað burkna eða pálma A large, divided leaf.
fruit aldin Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
fruticose runnkenndur Shrub-like (woody).
funicle fræstrengur The stalk of an ovule.
fusiform spólulaga Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
gamete kynfruma A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
gametophyte kynliður The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
geitonogamy sjálfsfrævun (milli blóma á sömu plöntu) Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
gemma æxlilaukur Synonymous with bulbil.
gemmiferous með æxlilauka With gemmae (bulbils).
geniculate hnébeygður Abruptly bent like a knee.
genome genamengi A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
genotype arfgerð, erfðafar The total set of genes in an individual.
genus ættkvísl A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
geophyte jarðplanta A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
gibbous kúptur With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
glabrous hárlaus Without hairs.
gland kirtill A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
glandular með kirtlum Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
glandular hair kirtilhár A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
globose hnöttóttur Spherical.
glomerule hnoða, blómhnoða A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
glumaceous agnkenndur Glume-like.
glume axögn One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
granulose kornóttur With a sand-like surface structure.
group hópur Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
gymnosperm berfrævingur A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
gynobasic með stíl sem festur er neðst á hlið frælegsins A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in the Lamiaceae.
gynodioecious með tvíkynja eða kveneinstaklingum Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
gynoecium fræblöð-blað blóms The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
gynomonoecious með tvíkynja eða kvenblómum Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
gynophore stílsúla A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
gynostegium stílfrævlasúla A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
gynostemium súla samvaxinna frjóþráða og frævustíla In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column.
habit vaxtarlag, útlit The general appearance of a plant.
habitat búsvæði, vist The environment in which a plant lives.
halophyte seltuplanta, saltplanta A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
hamate krókyddur Barbed or hooked at the apex.
hapaxanthous blómstrar einu sinni A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
haploid einlitna Having a single set of chromosomes.
hastate spjótlaga Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards.
head karfa, kollur A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster.
helicoid snúinn Coiled.
helicoid cyme snúðskúfur A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side.
helophyte fenjaplanta A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
hemi- hálf- Half-.
hemicryptophyte svarðplanta A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
herb jurt A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
herbaceous jurtkenndur Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
herkogamy ? Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
hermaphroditic tvíkynja blóm eða planta Bisexual.
hetero- ólíkur, mis Different, other, uneven.
heteroblastic misvaxta Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
heterophyllous misblöðóttur Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
heterosporous misgróa Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
heterostylous með blómum með mislöngum frævlum og stílum Of species having heterostyly.
hexaploid sexlitna Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
hilum frænafli The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
hirsute pétthærður With long, coarse, rough hairs.
hispid stífhærður With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
holotype hólóeintak, nafneintak (valið af höfundi) A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
homo- eins, sömu gerðar like, of the same kind.
homogamous frævur og fræfvlar þroskast samtímis With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
homologous samsvarandi Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
homosporous með einni gerð gróa Having spores all of one kind, as most pteridophytes.
homostylous með blómum með jafnlöngum frævlum og stílum Not heterostylous.
hooded hettulaga With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
hyaline himnukenndur Colourless and transparent.
hydrochorous dreifist með vatni Dispersed by water.
hydrophilous vatnsfrævaður Pollinated in water.
hydrophyte vatnaplanta A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
hypanthium undirbikar A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
hypo- undir-, neðar, neðri Below, under, beneath.
hypodermal skylt undirhúð relating to the hypodermis.
hypodermis undirhúð A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
hypogeal neðanjarðar Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
hypogynous undirsætinn Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
imbricate skaraður Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
imparipinnate stakfjaðraður Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet.
inbreeding innæxlun The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
incised djúpskertur Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly.
inclining aðsveigður Bending downwards.
incrassate þykkur, þrútinn Thickened or swollen.
indehiscent opnast eftir dreifingu Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
indumentum hæring The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
induplicate innorpinn Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
indusium gróhula A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
inferior undirsætinn Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
inflated uppblásinn Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
inflexed innsveigður Bent sharply inwards.
inflorescence blómskipun A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles.
infraspecific innan tegundar Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
infructescence aldinskipun A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
inserted viðfestur Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
integument frævísishimna One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
internode stöngulliður The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence.
interrupted óreglulegur Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
interruptedly pinnate bilbleðlóttur With alternating large and small leaflets.
intine innlag The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
introgression genablöndun skyldra tegunda The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
introrse opnast innramegin Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
involucre reifar, stórreifar A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
involute innundin Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface.
irregular óreglulegur Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
isoëtid botnplanta A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
isomerous einstalna Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
isotype tvítak nafneintaks A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
juvenile ungplöntugerð Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
karyotype kjarngerð The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
keel kjölur A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
keeled kjallaga Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
labellum vör A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
labiate með vörum, varaskipt Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
lacerate óreglulega flipóttur Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn.
lacinia oddflipi A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
laciniate oddflipóttur Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
lamina blaðka The blade of a leaf or petal.
lanate ullhærður Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs.
lanceolate lensulaga Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle.
lateral roots hliðarrætur Roots arising from the main root.
latex mjólkursafi Milky fluid, usually whitish.
lax opinn, gisinn Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
leaf laufblað, blað An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
leaflet smáblað Each unit of a compound leaf.
lectotype valeintak (valið til að gegna hlutverki nafneintaks) A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description, to serve in place of a holotype which is missing or has been destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
legume belgur A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod.
lemma ytri blómögn In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
lemnid rótlausar flotplanta An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
lenticular linsulaga Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
liana trjákennd klifurplanta A climbing, woody plant.
ligulate með tungukrónum With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
ligule slíðurhimna A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes.
limb kragi á krónu The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
linear striklaga Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1.
lingulate tungulaga Tongue-shaped.
lip vör One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
lobe flipi bleðill A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
lobed flipóttur Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
loculicidal rúmkleyfur Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.
loculus ?
locus gensæti
lomentum liðbelgur A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
longistylous með langan stíl Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
long-shoot langsproti A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
lyrate lýrulaga Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
lyrato- lýru- As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
macro- stór Large.
magenta rauðfjólublár A dark purplish-red colour.
marcescent sölnar en fellur ekki Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
marginal randstæður At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture.
massula kökkur An aggregation of pollen or spores.
mauve rauðblár A pale purple colour.
medifixed miðtengdur Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
mega- stór Large.
megaspore stórgró In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
meiosis rýriskipting A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
membranous himnukenndur Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
mericarp hlutaldin, deilialdin A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units (e.g., Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae).
-merous -deildur cf. Þrídeildur The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
meso- milli- Middle.
mesocarp millilag The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
mesostylous ? In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
micro- smár, smá- Small.
microspore smágró In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
midrib miðstrengur, miðtaug The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
mitosis jafnskipting A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
monadelphous samfrævla Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
mono- einn, ein- One-.
monochasium hálfskúfur A cyme with one branch from each node.
monocotyledon einkímblöðungur A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
monoecious sambýli Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
monolete gró með einu fari Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
monophyletic af sömu þróunarlínu A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
monopodial einsprota With a persistent terminal growing point.
monothecal einrýmdur With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
monotypic með einni kerfiseiningu With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
mucro broddur A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
mucronate broddyddur Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point.
multinodal með mörgum hnjám With numerous nodes.
muricate göddóttur Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
muticous oddlaus, týtulaus Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
mycorrhiza svepprót A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
myrmecochorous dreifist með maurum Dispersed by ants.
naked snöggur Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
nanophanerophyte dvergloftplanta A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
navicular bátslaga Boat-shaped.
nectariferous með hunangsbera Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
nectary hunangsberi A nectar-secreting organ.
neotype nýeintak (valið til að gegna hlutverki nafneintaks þegar öll eintök notuð við frumlýsingu eru glötuð) A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
nerve strengur, æð Synonymous with vein.
nigrescent sortnar Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming black" and "blackish").
nocturnal blómstrar að nóttu Nightly.
nodding lotinn Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
node hné, blaðstæði The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
nomen conservandum verndað nafn A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
nomen illegitimum ógilt nafn A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
nomen nudum marklaust nafn A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
nomen rejiciendum nafn sem hefur verið vikið til hliðar A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
nothomorph blendingsafbrigði One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
nothospecies blendingstegund A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
nothosubspecies blendingsundirtegund A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
nucellus kjarni The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
nut hneta A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
nymphaeid flotblöðungur A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
ob- öfug- The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
obconical öfugstrýtulaga Conical but attached at the narrower end.
obcordate öfughjartalaga Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
oblate nærrikringlóttur Almost circular but wider than long.
obligate nauðbundinn Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy.
oblique skástæður With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
oblong aflangur A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong.
obovate öfugegglaga A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate.
obtuse snubbóttur Blunt or rounded at apex.
ochrea axlaslíður A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae.
ochreola axlaslíður A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
opaque mattur, ógegnsær Dull, non-translucent.
operculum lok A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
opposite gagnstæður Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
orbicular kringlóttur A flat shape, circular in outline.
orifice op The opening, the mouth.
outbreeding útæxlun The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
outcrossing útfrævun Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
ovary eggleg The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
ovate egglaga Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects): widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate.
ovoid egglaga A solid shape with the form of an egg.
ovule frævísir Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
ovuliferous scale fræblað, fræhreistur A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
palate ginvarta A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
palea innri blómögn In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
palmate handflipóttur Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base.
palmatisect handskipt Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
panduriform fiðlulaga Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle.
panicle puntur A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence.
papery pappírskenndur Having a papery consistency.
papilla nabbi A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
papillose nöbbóttur Covered with papillae.
pappus svifkrans Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit (Asteraceae).
paraphyletic af samhliða þróunarlínum A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
paraphyses geldfrumur Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
parasite sníkill An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
parenchyma frumvefur Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
parietal vegglægt Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary.
paripinnate jafnfjaðraður Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet.
partial inflorescence smáblómskipun A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
-partite skiptur Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
patent útstæður Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
pectinate kambskiptur Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
pedate handflipóttur með skerta hliðarflipa Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
pedicel blómleggur The stalk of the individual flower.
pedicellate leggjaður Stalked (of flowers).
peduncle blómskipunarleggur The stalk of an inflorescense; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
pedunculate leggjaður Stalked (of inflorescences).
peltate skjaldlaga Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk.
pendent drúpandi, hangandi Hanging down.
pentamerous fimmdeildur Having five parts.
pentaploid fimmlitna Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
perennial fjölær A plant that lives for more than two years.
perfoliate með slíðri, slíðraður Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.
perianth blómhlíf The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
perianth segment blómhlífarblað The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished.
pericarp aldinveggur The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
perigynous kringsætinn Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
periodically serrate óreglulega sagtenntur Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others.
perisperm kjarnafræhvíta Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
perispore aukaútlag A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
perpendicular lóðrétt, hornrétt á Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
persistent langær Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
petal krónublað One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured.
petaloid krónublaðkenndur Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
petiolate stilkaður With a petiole, not sessile.
petiole blaðstilkur The stalk of a leaf.
petiolulate með smáblaðstilk With stalked leaflets.
petiolule smáblaðstilkur The stalk of a leaflet.
phanerogam blómplöntur, fræplöntur A plant reproducing by seeds.
phanerophyte loftplanta A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
phenotype svipgerð The physical characteristics of an organism.
phyllary reifar, reifablöð Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
phylloclade blaðlíkur stöngull Synonymous with cladode.
phyllode blaðkenndur stilkur A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
phylogeny þróunarferill The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
pilose mjúkhærður Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
pinna smáblað, bleðill The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules.
pinnate fjaðraður Divided into pinnae.
pinnatifid fjaðurskertur Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib.
pinnatisect fjaðurskiptur Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.
pinnule smábleðill A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments.
pistil fræva The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
pistillate kvenkyns Female (of flowers).
pistillode ófrjó fræva A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
pith mergur The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
placenta fræsæti The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
placentation lega fræsæta The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.
plastic sveigjanlegur Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
pleiochasium samsettur skúfur A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
pleiotropy fjölvirkni The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
plicate samanbrotinn, felldur Folded.
plumose fjaðurlaga Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
plurilocular fleirrýmdur Hollow, with more than two rooms.
pod belgur A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
pollen frjókorn The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
pollinarium frjókornakökkur The pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination (Asclepiadaceae).
pollinium frjókornakökkur In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
poly- margir, marg-, fjöl- Many.
polychronic ? Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
polygamous margbýli With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphic fjölbrigðinn With more than two distinct morphological variants.
polyphyletic af mismunandi þróunarlínum A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
polyploid fjöllitna, 3 (þrílitna), 4 (fjórlitna), 5 (fimmlitna), 6 (sexlitna), 7 (sjölitna), 8 (áttlitna), 9 (nílitna),10 (tílitna) o.s.frv. Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
polytopic ? Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
porate gropað (frjókorn) Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
post- eftir, bak við After, behind.
posterior fyrir aftan At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
precocious snemmþroska Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
premorse þverskorinn Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off.
prickle smáþyrnir A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
pro parte að hluta Partly, in part.
process ferli, rás An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on.
procumbent jarðlægur Trailing or spreading along the ground.
propagule æxlikorn A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prostrate jarðlægur Lying flat on the ground.
protandrous karlleiðinn Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
prothallus forkím The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies.
protogynous kvenleiðinn Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
proximal nærlægur, nær- Near to the organ's point of attachment.
pseudanthium skinblóm A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
pteridophytes byrkningar Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
puberulent stutthærður Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
pubescence hæring The hair covering.
pubescent dúnhærður Hairy.
pulvinate þúfulaga, þýfinn Cushion-shaped.
pulvinus ? A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
punctate blettóttur, pikkaður Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
pungent oddhvass Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
purple purpurarauður A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
pyriform perulaga Pear-shaped.
quadrangular ferhyrndur With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
raceme klasi An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex.
racemose klasakenndur Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel.
rachilla smáaxhelma Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
rachis blómskipunarstöngull, miðstrengur samsetts blaðs The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
radiate geislastæður Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers.
radical stofnstæður Basal.
ramet klóneintak One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
ray geisli Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
reclining frásveigður Turned or bent downward.
recurved baksveigður Bent backwards.
reduplicate útorpinn With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
reflexed aftursveigður Bent sharply backwards.
reniform nýrlaga Kidney-shaped.
repand smábugðóttur When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
resin viðarkvoða A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
resin duct viðarkvoðugöng Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
resinous viðarkvoðukenndur Resin-like.
resupinate á hvolfi, öfugur Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
reticulate netmynstraður Forming or covered with a network.
retrorse baksveigður Directed towards the proximal end.
retuse grunnsýldur With a small incision in a round or blunt apex.
revolute útundinn Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface.
rhizomatous með jarðstöngul Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
rhizome jarðstöngull Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
rigid stinnur Stiff, not flexible.
rootstock rót An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
rosette blaðhvirfing A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
rostellum smátrjóna A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
rufescent roðnar Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming red" and "reddish").
rugose hrukkóttur With a deeply wrinkled surface.
rugulose grunnhrukkóttur With minutely wrinkled surface.
ruminate skörðóttur Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
runcinate klósigflipóttur With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf.
runner rengla Synonymous with stolon.
saccate sekklaga Bag- or pouch-shaped.
sagittate örlaga Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards.
saprophyte rotplanta A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
scabrid hrjúfur Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
scabridulous lítillega hrjúfur Minutely roughened.
scabrous hrjúfhærður Synonymous with scabrid.
scale hreistur A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
scape blaðlaus blómstilkur eða blómskipunarstöngull A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
scapose með blaðhvirfingu og blómskipun á blaðlausum stilk With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
scarious himnukenndur Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
scarlet skarlatsrauður A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
schizocarp klofaldin A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
sciophyte skuggaplanta A plant that grows only in shady places.
sclerenchyma stoðvefur Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
scorpioid cyme hálfskúfur A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young.
scrambler klifurplanta Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
scutate skjaldlaga Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
secund einhliða One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
seed fræ The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
self-compatible sjálfsfrjór Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
self-fertilization sjálfsfrjóvgun Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
self-incompatible sjálfsófrjór Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
self-pollination sjálfsfrævun The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
semi- hálf- Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
sensu lato í víðri merkingu In the broad sense.
sensu stricto í þrengri merkingu In the narrow sense.
sepal bikarblað One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
sepaloid bikarblaðkenndur Sepal-like.
septicidal skilveggkleyfur Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
septifragous skilveggbrotinn Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
septum skilveggur A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
serial í röð, saman Arranged in a row; serial buds are axillary, each one adaxial to the next older bud.
sericeous silkihærður Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
serrate sagtenntur Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward.
serrulate fínsagtenntur Minutely serrate.
sessile stilklaus Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
seta bursti A bristle or stiff hair.
setaceous burstkenndur Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
setose með burstum Beset with bristles.
sheath slíður A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
shoot sproti A young stem or branch.
short-shoot dvergsproti A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
shrub runni A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
sigmoid s-laga Bent like the letter S.
silicula stuttur skálpur A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
siliqua skálpur A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
simple einfaldur, ógreindur Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
sinuate bugðóttur Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions.
sinus skerðing, vik The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
solitary stakur Borne singly.
sorus gróflekkur A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
spadix kólfur A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis.
spathe hulsturblað A large bract surrounding an inflorescence (Araceae, Lemnaceae, Hydrocharitaceae).
spathulate spaðalaga Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part.
species tegund
spermatophyte fræplanta A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
spheroid hnattlaga Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
spike ax A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
spikelet smáax The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
spine þyrnir A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
spinose þyrnóttur With spines.
spinule smáþyrnir A small spine.
spinulose smáþyrnótt With small spines.
sporangium gróhirsla A body producing spores.
spore gró A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
sporophyll gróblað A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
sporophyte gróliður The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
spur spori A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
stalk stilkur Any narrow basal part of an organ.
stamen frævill The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
staminode geldfrævill A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
standard fáni The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
stellate stjörnulaga Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
stem stöngull, stofn The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
stem-clasping greipfættur Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
sterile geldur, ófrjór Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
stigma fræni The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
stipe blaðstilkur A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
stipel aukaaxlablað A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
stipitate stilkaður Stalked, borne on a stipe.
stipulate með axlablöð With stipules.
stipule axlablað Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
stolon rengla A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
stoloniferous með renglur Bearing stolons.
stoma loftauga A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
stomatiferous með loftaugu With stomata.
straggling breiðir óreglulega úr sér, ekki beinvaxinn Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
stria gárur In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
striate gáraður, rákóttur Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
striation gárun A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
strigose stífhærður Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
strigulose stuttstífhærður With short, stiff hairs.
strophiole fræskurnarsepi A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
stylar part neðri hluti skálps In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
style stíll The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
stylopodium stílsæti A swelling on the top of the ovary (Apiaceae).
sub- næstum Meaning almost, not completely.
submerged í kafi, kaf-, cf. kafblað Growing under water.
subshrub hálfrunni A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
subtend styðja To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
subulate allaga Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point.
succulent þykkur og safamikill Fleshy and juicy.
sucker rótarskot An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
suffruticose trékenndur Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
sulcate skoróttur Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
superior yfirsætinn Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
suture saumur The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
sympatric samsvæða Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
sympetalous heilkrýndur With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
sympodial fleirsprota Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
syncarpous með samblaða frævu Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
synsepalous með samblaða bikar With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntepalous heilkrýndur With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntype sameintak (eintak sem vísað er til í frumlýsingu þegar höfundur velur ekki sérstakt nafneintak) One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
taproot stólparót A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
taxon kerfiseining A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
tendril klifurþráður A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
tepal blómhlífarblað þegar þau eru öll eins One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
teratologic vanskapaður With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
terete sívalur Circular in cross-section.
terminal endastæður At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
ternate þrífingraður A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate.
testa fræskurn The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
tetrad ferna A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
tetramerous úr fjórum hlutum Having four parts.
tetraploid fjórlitna Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
thallus þal A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
theca frjóhnappshelmingur The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
therophyte einær planta An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
thorn þyrnir A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
throat blómgin The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
thyrse dúskur An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
thyrsoid samsett blómskipun Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
tiller stöngulskot A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
tomentose lóhærður Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
torulose ? Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
triangular þríhyrndur Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross section.
trichome útvöxtur úr yfirhúð plantna An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
tricuspidate þrítenntur Having three sharp points at the apex.
trifid þrískiptur Three-cleft.
trifoliate þríblaða Having three leaves.
trifoliolate þríbleðla, þríblaða Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate.
trigonous sljóþrístrendur A body triangular in section with rounded edges.
trilete gró með þríarma öri Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
trimorphic með þrenns konar lögun With three different forms.
triquetrous hvassþrístrendur A body triangular in section with sharp edges.
trullate múrskeiðarlaga Trowel-shaped; a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide.
truncate þverstýfður Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases).
trunk trjástofn The single, central stem of a tree.
tube pípa A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
tuber hnýði A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
tubercle arða, smáhnúður A small blunt outgrowth.
tuberculate örðóttur With small, smooth, blunt projections.
tuberous hnýðiskenndur Tuber-like.
tubular rörlaga Hollow and almost cylindrical.
tuft þúfa A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
tufted þýfinn With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
tunic laukhýði The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
turbinate ? Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
turgid þrútinn Swollen.
turion vetrarhnappur, vetrarsproti A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
twig smágrein, kvistur A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
twiner vafplanta A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
twining sem vefur sig Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
umbel sveipur An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point.
umbo bóla, nabbi, nef Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
umbonate bólóttur With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
unarmed varnalaus Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
undulate bylgjóttur Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves.
unguiculate klófættur With the base contracted into a claw.
uni- ein- One-.
unilocular einrýmdur Hollow, with one room.
unisexual einkynja A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
urceolate krukkulaga Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
utricle hulstur A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
valvar part lokuhluti In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
valvate samlægur, samloka Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
valve loka A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead).
variant tilbrigði Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
variegated marglitur Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
vascular plant háplanta, æðplanta A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
wedge-shaped fleyglaga Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
vegetative vaxtar-, sem varðar vöxt The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
vegetative dispersal kynlaus dreifing The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
vegetative reproduction vaxtaræxlun A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
vein strengur, æð A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
velutinous floshærður Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
venation æðamynstur The pattern formed by the veins.
vernation brumlega The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
verrucose vörtóttur Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
versatile hreyfanlegur When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement.
verticillate kransstæður Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis.
vesicular blöðrulaga Bladderlike.
vesiculose með blöðrum Covered with blisters or small bladders.
vestigial vanþroskaður, óþarfur Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
whorl hvirfing An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
vicariance ? The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
villous loðinn Covered with long, weak hairs.
wing vængur One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
violet fjólublár A purplish-blue colour.
viscid klístrugur Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
viscidium límflaga In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
viviparous blaðgróinn With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
woody trékenndur Having the texture of wood.
xenogamous með víxlfrjóvgun Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
xenogamy víxlfrjóvgun Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
xerophyte þurrkplanta A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
zigzag í krákustígum With short, sharp turns from side to side.
zygomorphic óreglulegur With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.