Morphological terms: English/English
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a- Without, lacking.
a-, ab- Away from, see abaxial.
abaxial Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing away from the axis, normally the lower surface.
abiotic Not involving living organisms.
abortive Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
abscission The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
acaulescent Stemless, or with no visible stem
accrescent Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
achene A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
acicular Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed. leaf shapes 1
aciculate Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
acrogynous In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
acroscopic Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
actinomorphic Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
aculeate Prickly.
acuminate Tapering gradually to a protracted point. leaf top
acute Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides. leaf top
ad- To, towards.
adaxial Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
adnate Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
adventitious Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
adventive Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
aerial Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
aestivation The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
agamospecies A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
agamospermy The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
aggregate Of separate elements collected into one mass; aggregate fruit, a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower but with the ripening of the fruit forming a single unit, as the strawberry or raspberry; of taxa, an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship
alate Winged.
allele One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
allogamous With allogamy.
allogamy Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
allopatric Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
allopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
alternate Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals. arrangement
alternately pinnate Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
alveolate With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
amphidiploid An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
amplexicaul Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
analogous A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
anastomosing Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
androdioecious Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
androecium The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
androgynophore A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
androgynous Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious; not used in this Flora.
andromonoecious Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
androphore A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
anemochorous Dispersed by wind. Not used in this Flora.
anemophilous Pollinated by wind. Not used in this Flora.
aneuploid A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
angiosperm A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
angular Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
anisomerous Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
annual A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year..
annulus A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
ante- Before, in front of.
anterior In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
anther The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
anthesis The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
anthocyanin A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
antrorse Directed towards the distal end.
apetalous Without petals.
apex The very tip of an organ.
apical At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary. placentation
apiculate With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point. leaf top
apiculum A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
apocarpous A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
apomictic A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apomixis Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apophysis A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
appendiculate With small appendages.
appendix An extension, e.g. a supplement.
appressed Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
arborescent Tree-like in growth or general appearance, applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
archegonium In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
arcuate Curved like a bow.
areola The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
areolate Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
aril A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
arista An awn or bristle.
aristate Having an awn or bristle at the tip. leaf top
articulate Jointed.
ascending Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
asexual reproduction The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
asperous Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
asymmetric Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
auricle An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
auriculate With auricles. attachment
autogamous With autogamy.
autogamy Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
autopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
awn A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
axil The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
axile On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary. placentation
axillary In the axil.
axis The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
basal At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary. placentation
basifixed Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
basigynous In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
basiscopic Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
beak A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
berry A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
bi- Two, twice.
biconvex Convex on two sides.
bidentate Ambiguous, use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
biennial A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
bifid Two-cleft. leaf top
bilabiate Two-lipped.
bilocular Having two cavities.
bilomentum A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
binary name The name of the species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
bipartite Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnate Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate. leaf shapes 2
bisexual Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
bisymmetric Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
biternate Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules. leaf shapes 2
blade The expanded part of a leaf.
bloom A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
bract A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
bracteate With bracts.
bracteole A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
brevistylous Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
bud An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
bud-scales Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
bulb A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
bulbil A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
bulbiliferous With bulbils.
caducous Falling off at an early stage.
caespitose Growing in tufts, tufted.
callosity A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
callus In Poaceae, the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
calyptra A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
calyx Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
campanulate Bell-shaped.
canaliculate With a longitudinal groove or channel.
capillary Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
capitate Head-like; of an inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated into a dense cluster; of a stigma or a gland, globose like the head of a pin.
capitulum An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae. inflorescences
capsule A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
carnose Synonymous with succulent. Not used in this Flora.
carpel The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
cartilaginous Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
caryopsis A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
catkin A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible. inflorescences
caudate Having a long tail-like tip or appendage. leaf top
caudicle A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (in the Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae).
cauliflorous Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
cauline Borne on the stem.
ceratophyllid A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
chamaephyte A plant with winterbuds above ground, but below 25 cm.
chartaceous Having a papery consistency. Not used in this Flora.
chasmogamous Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
chlorotic Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease..
choripetalous With the petals free from each other.
chorology The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
ciliate With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
circinate Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
circumscissile Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
cirrhose Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
cladode A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.
cladophyll Not used in this Flora.
clasping Grasping, embracing.
clathrate With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
claw The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
clavate Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
cleistogamous Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
climber Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
clonal Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
clone Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
cochlear Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
cochleariform Concave like a spoon, spoon-like. Not used in this Flora.
cochleate Coiled like a snail-shell.
colliculate Of seed coat, covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
colpate Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
colporate Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
column A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
columnar Column-like.
commissure A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
complex An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very. Variable
compound The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times e.g. compound umbel.
compressed Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
cone A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
cone scale The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
confluent The running together of two parts into one, blending.
connate Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
connective The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
connivent Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
conoidal Almost cone-shaped.
contiguous Touching at the edges with no gap between.
contorted Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
contracted Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
convolute Rolled up longitudinally.
cordate Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base. leaf base
cordiform Shaped like a heart, in outline.
coriaceous Of a leathery texture
corm A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
corolla Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
corona A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
coronal scales Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
corymb A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence. inflorescences
corymbose Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence. Ambiguous term, not used in this Flora.
costa The midrib or rachis of a pinna. division of leaves
costule In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule. division of leaves
cotyledon The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
crenate Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth. margin
crenulate Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
crested With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers .
crimson A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
crispate Curly, wavy or crinkled.
cross fertilization Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
cross pollination The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
crown The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
crozier A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
crustaceous Hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
cucullate Hooded, hood-shaped.
culm The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
cuneate Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides). leaf base
cupule A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
cuspidate Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point. leaf top
cylindrical Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section
cymbiform Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular. Not used in this Flora..
cyme An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it. inflorescences
cymose Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud. inflorescences
cypsela A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
cystolith An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
decaploid Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
deciduous Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
decumbent Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
decurrent Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
decussate Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other. arrangement
deflexed Bent sharply downwards.
dehiscent Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
deltoid Pyramid-shaped.
dendroid Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
dentate Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards. margin
denticulate Minutely toothed.
depauperate Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
depressed Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
descending Having a direction gradually downwards.
determinate Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
diadelphous Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (in Fabaceae).
dichasium A cyme with two branches from each node. cymose
dichogamy Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
dichotomous Branching by forking into two equal branches.
dicotyledon A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
digitate Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand. leaf shapes 2
dilated Expanded, widened.
dimorphic With two different forms.
dioecious Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
diploid Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
disc Anything disc-shaped, e.g.. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
disc flowers The central tubular flowers of some Asteraceae, cf. ray flowers.
discoid Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
dissected Divided into segments.
distal Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
distichous Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem. arrangement
dithecal Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
diurnal Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
divaricate Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
divergent Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart then their bases.
dormancy A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
dorsifixed Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
dorsiventral Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
doubly dentate Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
doubly serrate Toothed with small teeth on the large ones. Margin
drooping Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
drupaceous Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe; ambiguous term, not used in this Flora.
drupe A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
duplicato-dentate Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth; not used in this Flora.
dwarf-shrub Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
e- From, out of.
e-, ex- Without, lacking.
ebracteate Without bracts.
Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
ecotype A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
ectotrophic mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
eglandular Without glands.
elaiosome An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
elater In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
electrophoresis Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
ellipsoid A solid shape elliptic in side view.
elliptic A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic. leaf shapes 1
elodeid Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
elongated Prolonged, extended, notably long.
emarginate With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex. leaf top
embryo A young plant contained within the seed.
enclosed Not protruding.
endocarp The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
endosperm The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
endotrophic mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
endozoochorous Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
ensiform Sword-shaped.
entire Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected. margin
entomophilous Insect-pollinated.
epi- upon, on top of or added to.
epicalyx A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
epidermal Associated with the epidermis.
epidermis The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
epigeal Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
epigynous Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
epiphyte A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
epizoochorous Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
erect Upright, directed strictly upwards.
erectopatent Directed obliquely upwards.
erose Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded .
evergreen Bearing leaves throughout the year.
exine The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
exocarp The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
exserted Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
exstipulate Without stipules.
extrafloral Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
extrorse Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
facial At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
facultative Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
falcate Sickle-shaped. leaf shapes 1
farinose Mealy.
fascicle A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
fasciculate Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
fastigiate With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
fertile Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
fertilization The union of male and female gametes.
fibrous Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
fibrous roots A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
filament A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
filiform Threadlike, slender and elongated. leaf shapes 1
fimbriate Fringed.
fissured With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
fistulose Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
flaccid Limp, unable to support its own weight.
flexible Pliable.
flexuous Of a stem or hair, wavy.
floccose Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
floriferous Bearing flowers.
flower The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
foliaceous Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
follicle A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion. In many Ranunculaceae.
foveate Pitted.
foveolate Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
free When applied to floral organs: not fused.
free-central Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary. placentation
frond A large, divided leaf. Not used in the Flora.
fruit Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
fruticose Shrub-like (woody).
funicle The stalk of an ovule.
fusiform Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
gamete A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
gametophyte The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
gamo- Union of like parts.
geitonogamy Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
gemma Synonymous with bulbil. Not used in this Flora.
gemmiferous With bulbils. Not used in this Flora.
geniculate Abruptly bent like a knee.
genome A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
genotype The total set of genes in an individual.
genus A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
geophyte A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
gibbous With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
glabrous Without hairs.
gland A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
glandular Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
glandular hair A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
globose Spherical.
glomerule A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
glumaceous Glume-like. Not used in this Flora.
glume One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
granulose With a sand-like surface structure.
group Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
gymnosperm A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
gynobasic A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in Lamiaceae.
gynodioecious Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
gynoecium The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
gynomonoecious Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
gynophore A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
gynostegium A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
gynostemium In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column. Not used in this Flora.
habit The general appearance of a plant.
habitat The environment in which a plant lives.
halophyte A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
hamate Barbed or hooked at the apex.
hapaxanthous A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
haploid Having a single set of chromosomes.
hastate Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards. leaf base
head A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster. inflorescences
helicoid Coiled.
helicoid cyme A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side. inflorescences
helophyte A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
hemi- Half-.
hemicryptophyte A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
herb A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
herbaceous Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
herkogamy Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
hermaphroditic Bisexual. Not used in this Flora.
hetero- Different, other, uneven.
heteroblastic Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
heterophyllous Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
heterosporous Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
hexaploid Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
hilum The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
hirsute With long, coarse, rough hairs.
hispid With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
holotype A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
homo- like, of the same kind
homogamous With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
homologous Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
homosporous Having spores all of one kind only, as most pteridophytes.
homostylous Not heterostylous.
hooded With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
hyaline Colourless and transparent.
hydrochorous Dispersed by water.
hydrophilous Pollinated in water.
hydrophyte A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
hypanthium A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
hypo- Below, under, beneath
hypodermal relating to the hypodermis.
hypodermis A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
hypogeal Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
hypogynous Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
imbricate Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
imparipinnate Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet. leaf shapes 2
inbreeding The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
incised Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly. leaf shapes 2
inclining Bending downwards.
incrassate Thickened or swollen.
indehiscent Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
indumentum The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
induplicate Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
indusium A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
inferior Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
inflated Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
inflexed Bent sharply inwards.
inflorescence A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles. inflorescences
infraspecific Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
infructescence A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
inserted Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
integument One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
internode The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence..
interrupted Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
interruptedly pinnate With alternating large and small leaflets.
intine The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
introgression The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
introrse Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
involucre A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
involute Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface. margin
irregular Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
isoëtid A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
isomerous Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
isotype A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
juvenile Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
karyotype The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
keel A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
keeled Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
labellum A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
labiate Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
lacerate Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn. leaf shapes 2
lacinia A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
laciniate Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes. leaf shapes 2
lamina The blade of a leaf or petal. Not used in this Flora.
lanate Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs
lanceolate Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle. leaf shapes 1
lateral roots Roots arising from the main root.
latex Milky fluid, usually whitish.
lax Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
leaf An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
leaflet Each unit of a compound leaf.
lectotype A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description to serve in place of a holotype where the holotype is missing or destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
legume A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod, not used in this Flora.
lemma In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
lemnid An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
lenticular Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
liana A climbing, woody plant.
ligulate With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
ligule A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes. attachment
limb The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
linear Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1. leaf shapes 1
lingulate Tongue-shaped.
lip One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
lobe A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
lobed Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
loculicidal Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.
lomentum A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
longistylous Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
long-shoot A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
lyrate Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes. leaf shapes 2
lyrato- As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
macro- Large.
magenta A dark purplish-red colour.
marcescent Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
marginal At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture. placentation
massula An aggregation of pollen or spores.
mauve A pale purple colour.
medifixed Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
mega- Large.
megaspore In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
meiosis A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
membranous Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
mericarp A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units, as in the Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae etc.
-merous The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
meso- Middle.
mesocarp The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
mesostylous In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
micro- Small.
microspore In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
midrib The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
mitosis A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
monadelphous Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
mono- One-.
monochasium A cyme with one branch from each node. cymose
monocotyledon A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
monoecious Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
monolete Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
monophyletic A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
monopodial With a persistent terminal growing point.
monothecal With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
monotypic With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
mucro A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
mucronate Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point. leaf top
multinodal With numerous nodes.
muricate Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
muticous Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
mycorrhiza A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
myrmecochorous Dispersed by ants. Not used in this Flora.
naked Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
nanophanerophyte A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
navicular Boat-shaped.
nectariferous Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
nectary A nectar-secreting organ.
neotype A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
nerve Synonymous with vein. Not used in this Flora.
nigrescent Ambiguous ("becoming black" or "blackish"); not used in this Flora.
nocturnal Nightly.
nodding Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
node The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
nomen conservandum A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
nomen illegitimum A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
nomen nudum A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
nomen rejiciendum A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
nothomorph One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
nothospecies A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
nothosubspecies A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
nucellus The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
nut A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
nymphaeid A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
ob- The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
obconical Conical but attached at the narrower end.
obcordate Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
oblate Almost circular but wider than long. leaf shapes 1
obligate Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy
oblique With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
oblong A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong. leaf shapes 1
obovate A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate. leaf shapes 1
obtuse Blunt or rounded at apex. leaf top
ochrea A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae. attachment
ochreola A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
opaque Dull, non-translucent.
operculum A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
opposite Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
orbicular A flat shape, circular in outline. leafshapes 1
orifice The opening, the mouth.
outbreeding The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
outcrossing Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
ovary The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
ovate Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects); widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate. leaf shapes 1
ovoid A solid shape with the form of an egg.
ovule Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
ovuliferous scale A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
palate A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
palea In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
palmate Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base. leaf shapes 2
palmatisect Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
panduriform Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle. leaf shapes 1
panicle A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence. inflorescences
papery Having a papery consistency.
papilla A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
papillose Covered with papillae.
pappus Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit, in the Asteraceae.
paraphyletic A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
paraphyses Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
parasite An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
parenchyma Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
parietal Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary. placentation
paripinnate Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet. leaf shapes 2
partial inflorescence A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
-partite Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
patent Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
pectinate Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
pedate Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
pedicel The stalk of the individual flower.
pedicellate Stalked (of flowers).
peduncle The stalk of an inflorescence; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
pedunculate Stalked (of inflorescences).
peltate Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk. leaf shapes 1
pendent Hanging down.
pentamerous Having five parts.
pentaploid Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
perennial A plant that lives for more than two years.
perfoliate Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade. attachment
perianth The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
perianth segment The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished .
pericarp The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
perigynous Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
periodically serrate Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others. margin
perisperm Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
perispore A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
perpendicular Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
persistent Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
petal One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured .
petaloid Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
petiolate With a petiole, not sessile. attachment
petiole The stalk of a leaf.
petiolulate With stalked leaflets.
petiolule The stalk of a leaflet.
phanerogam A plant reproducing by seeds.
phanerophyte A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
phyllary Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
phylloclade Synonymous with cladode. Not used in this Flora.
phyllode A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
phylogeny The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
pilose Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
pinna The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules. leaf shapes 2
pinnate Divided into pinnae. leaf shapes 2
pinnatifid Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib. leaf shapes 2
pinnatisect Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it. leaf shapes 2
pinnule A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments. leaf shapes 2
pistil The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
pistillate Female (of flowers).
pistillode A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
pith The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
placenta The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
placentation The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary. placentation
plastic Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
pleiochasium A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
pleiotropy The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
plicate Folded.
plumose Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
plurilocular Hollow, with more than two rooms.
pod A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
pollen The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
pollinarium In Asclepiadaceae; the pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) are united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination.
pollinium In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
poly- Many.
polychronic Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
polygamous With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphic With more than two distinct morphological variants.
polyphyletic A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
polyploid Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
polytopic Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
porate Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
post- After, behind.
posterior At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
precocious Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
premorse Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off. leaf top
prickle A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
pro parte Partly, in part.
process An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on; not used as a morphological term in this Flora.
procumbent Trailing or spreading along the ground.
propagule A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prostrate Lying flat on the ground.
protandrous Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
prothallus The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies. The term is not used in the Flora.
protogynous Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
proximal Near to the organ's point of attachment.
pseudanthium A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
pteridophytes Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
puberulent Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
pubescence The hair covering.
pubescent Hairy.
pulvinate Cushion-shaped.
pulvinus A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
punctate Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
pungent Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
purple A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
pyriform Pear-shaped.
quadrangular With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
raceme An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex. inflorescences
racemose Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel. inflorescences
rachilla Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
rachis The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence. leaf shapes 2
radiate Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers
radical Basal.
ramet One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
ray Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
reclining Turned or bent downward.
recurved Bent backwards.
reduplicate With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
reflexed Bent sharply backwards.
reniform Kidney-shaped. leaf shapes 1
repand When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
resin A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
resin duct Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
resinous Resin-like.
resupinate Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
reticulate Forming or covered with a network. venation
retrorse Directed towards the proximal end.
retuse With a small incision in a round or blunt apex. leaf top
revolute Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface. margin
rhizomatous Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
rhizome Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
rigid Stiff, not flexible.
rootstock An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
rosette A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
rostellum A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
rufescent "Becoming red" or "reddish". The term is not used in this Flora.
rugose With a deeply wrinkled surface.
rugulose With minutely wrinkled surface.
ruminate Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
runcinate With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf. leaf shapes 2
runner Synonymous with stolon.
saccate Bag- or pouch-shaped.
sagittate Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards. leaf base
saprophyte A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
scabrid Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
scabridulous Minutely roughened.
scabrous Synonymous with scabrid. Not used in this Flora.
scale A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
scape A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
scapose With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
scarious Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
scarlet A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
schizocarp A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
sciophyte A plant that grows only in shady places.
sclerenchyma Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
scorpioid cyme A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young. inflorescences
scrambler Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
scutate Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
secund One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
seed The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
self-compatible Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
self-fertilization Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
self-incompatible Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
self-pollination The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
semi- Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
sensu lato In the broad sense.
sensu stricto In the narrow sense.
sepal One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
sepaloid Sepal-like.
septicidal Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
septifragous Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
septum A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
serial Arranged in rows which are not necessarily opposite each other.
sericeous Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
serrate Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward. margin
serrulate Minutely serrate.
sessile Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
seta A bristle or stiff hair.
setaceous Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
setose Beset with bristles.
sheath A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
shoot A young stem or branch.
short-shoot A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
shrub A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
sigmoid Bent like the letter S.
silicula A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
siliqua A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
simple Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
sinuate Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions. margin
sinus The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
solitary Borne singly.
sorus A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
spadix A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis. inflorescences
spathe A large bract surrounding an inflorescence.
spathulate Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part. leaf shapes 1
species The basic systematic entity. Ideally, all members of a species can cross and give fertile offspring.
spermatophyte A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
spheroid Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
spike A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets. inflorescences
spikelet The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
spine A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
spinose With spines.
spinule A small spine.
spinulose With small spines.
sporangium A body producing spores.
spore A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
sporophyll A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
sporophyte The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
spur A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
stalk Any narrow basal part of an organ.
stamen The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
staminode A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
standard The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
stellate Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
stem The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
stem-clasping Of a leaf base, clasping the stem. attachment
sterile Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
stigma The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
stipe A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
stipel A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
stipitate Stalked, borne on a stipe.
stipulate With stipules
stipule Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
stolon A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
stoloniferous Bearing stolons.
stoma A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
stomatiferous With stomata.
straggling Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
stria In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
striate Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
striation A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
strigose Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
strigulose With short, stiff hairs.
strophiole A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
stylar part In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
style The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
stylopodium A swelling on the top of the ovary, in the Apiaceae.
sub- Meaning almost, not completely.
submerged Growing under water.
subshrub A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
subtend To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
subulate Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point. leaf shapes 1
succulent Fleshy and juicy.
sucker An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
suffruticose Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
sulcate Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
superior Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
suture The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
sympatric Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
sympetalous With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
sympodial Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
syncarpous Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
synsepalous With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntepalous With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntype One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
taproot A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
taxon A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
tendril A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
tepal One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
teratologic With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
terete Circular in cross-section.
terminal At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
ternate A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate. leaf shapes 2
testa The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
tetrad A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
tetramerous Having four parts.
tetraploid Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
thallus A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
theca The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
therophyte An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
thorn A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
throat The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
thyrse An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
thyrsoid Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
tiller A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
tomentose Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
torulose Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
triangular Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross-section. leaf shapes 1
trichome An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
tricuspidate Having three sharp points at the apex.
trifid Three-cleft.
trifoliate Having three leaves.
trifoliolate Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate. leafshapes 2
trigonous A body triangular in section with rounded edges
trilete Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
trimorphic With three different forms.
triquetrous A body triangular in section with sharp edges
trullate Trowel-shaped, a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide. leaf shapes 1
truncate Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases). leaf base
leaf top
trunk The single, central stem of a tree.
tube A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
tuber A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
tubercle A small blunt outgrowth.
tuberculate With small, smooth, blunt projections.
tuberous Tuber-like
tubular Hollow and almost cylindrical.
tuft A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
tufted With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
tunic The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
turbinate Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
turgid Swollen.
turion A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
twig A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
twiner A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
twining Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
umbel An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point. inflorescences
umbo Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
umbonate With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
unarmed Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
undulate Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves. margin
unguiculate With the base contracted into a claw.
uni- One-.
unilocular Hollow, with one room.
unisexual A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
urceolate Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
utricle A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
valvar part In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
valvate Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
valve A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead)
variant Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
variegated Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
vascular plant A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
wedge-shaped Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
vegetative The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
vegetative dispersal The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
vegetative reproduction A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
vein A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
velutinous Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
venation The pattern formed by the veins.
vernation The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
verrucose Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
versatile When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement .
verticillate Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis. arrangement
vesicular Bladderlike.
vesiculose Covered with blisters or small bladders.
vestigial Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
whorl An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
vicariance The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
villous Covered with long, weak hairs.
wing One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
violet A purplish-blue colour.
viscid Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
viscidium In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
viviparous With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
woody Having the texture of wood.
xenogamous Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
xenogamy Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
xerophyte A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
zigzag With short, sharp turns from side to side.
zygomorphic With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.