english dansk explanation
a- uden, manglende Without, lacking.
a-, ab- væk fra "Away from".
abiotic abiotisk Not involving living organisms.
abortive abortiv, aborterende Imperfectly developed, not grown to its normal size or function, usually of flowers or fruits.
abscission -fald, løvfald The normal shedding of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. an old leaf, a ripe fruit etc.
acaulescent stængelløs Stemless, or with no visible stem.
accrescent viderevoksende, tiltagende Enlarging after maturity, as the stem or the calyx of some plants after flowering.
achene skalfrugt A small, dry, indehiscent, single-seeded fruit, characteristic of Ranunculus; in a strict sense developed from a superior ovary of one carpel and with the seed free from the fruit wall.
acicular nåleformet Needle-shaped, narrow, stiff and pointed.
Finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.
acrogynous akrogyn In sedges, with female flowers in the top of the spike.
Facing towards the apex or distal end of an organ.
actinomorphic radiærsymmetrisk Of flowers, radially symmetrical, symmetrical about more than one plane passing through the axis of the flower.
aculeate pigget Prickly.
acuminate tilspidset Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
acute spids Tapering to a pointed apex with more or less straight sides.
ad- til, mod "To", "towards".
adaxial adaksial Of a lateral organ, the side or surface facing towards the axis, normally the upper surface.
adnate tilvokset Fused to an organ of a different kind, e.g. applied to a stamen fused to a petal.
adventitious adventiv- Arising in abnormal positions; of buds, those produced elsewhere than in the axils of leaves or the end of a branch; of roots, those coming from organs other than the main root system, such as the stem.
adventive indslæbt, forvildet Indeliberately brought in by man or his agents recently.
aerial luft- Whole plants or parts of plants living above the surface of the ground or water.
aestivation knopleje The spatial arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
A species which usually produces seeds asexually, by agamospermy.
agamospermy agamospermi The formation of seeds by pseudo-sexual means. The embryo is formed from entirely maternal tissue, so that the offspring is genetically identical with their female parent.
aggregate aggregat A clump or cluster; an aggregate fruit is a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower strawberry or raspberry; in taxonomy, an aggregate is an assemblage of distinct, though very similar taxa with a phylogenetic relationship.
alate vinget With wing-like appendages.
allele allel One of two or more alternate forms of a gene.
With allogamy.
allogamy allogami Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower, either between different flowers of the same plant (geitonogamy, resulting in selfing), or between flowers of different plants (xenogamy, resulting in crossing).
allopatric allopatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying different geographical areas.
allopolyploid allopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.

alternate alternerende, spredt, skruestillet Of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis; of floral parts, on a different radius, describing e.g. the position of petals with respect to sepals.
alternately pinnate alternerende finnet Of a pinnate leaf, where the leaflets are not opposite.
alveolate alveolat, bikage- With small pits, looking like a honeycomb.
amphidiploid amfidiploid An allopolyploid that forms only bivalents at meiosis, thus functionally a diploid.
amplexicaul stængelomfattende Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
analogous analog A structure that functions similarly but has a different phylogenetic origin than another entity.
anastomosing anastomoserende Forming a network; usually applied to veins.
Having male and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
androecium andrøcium, støvbladene The male reproductive organs of a flower; all the stamens.
androgynophore androgynofor A stalk above the level of the insertion of the perianth, bearing both the androecium and the gynoecium.
androgynous androgyn, enbo Having male and female flowers on the same plant. Synonymous with monoecious.
andromonoecious ____??? Having male and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
androphore androfor A stalk supporting a group of stamens.
anemochorous vindspredt Dispersed by wind.
anemophilous vindbestøvet Pollinated by wind.
aneuploid aneuploid A plant having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the base chromosome number of the group.
angiosperm dækfrøet, angiosperm A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing within an ovary.
angular kantet Of stems, having more or less distinct corners in cross-section, e.g. triangular, quadrangular; of leaves, having several salient angles on the margin. Obtuse-angled, when the angles are rounded, acute-angled, when they are sharp.
Having a different number of parts (usually less) in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with five sepals and petals, but only two stamens.
annual annuel, enårig A plant that completes its life cycle within a year; a winter annual germinates in autumn and flowers the next spring or summer, a summer annual germinates in spring and flowers the same year.
annulus ring A ring; in ferns, the elastic ring of cells, forming part of the sporangium wall.
ante- for- Before, in front of.
In the front; on the side away from the axis, as the lower lip of a bilabiate corolla.
anther støvknap The part of the stamen containing the pollen.
anthesis blomstring The period during which the flower is open, from bud-burst until withering of floral parts.
A large group of water soluble pigments that are red, blue or violet, usually giving plant parts a reddish tinge.
antrorse fremadvendt, fremadrettet Directed towards the distal end.
apetalous apetal Without petals.
apex spids The very tip of an organ.
apical apikal At the apex; also used in the sense of distal. Of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the top of the ovary.
apiculate brodspidset With an apiculum, ending abruptely in a short, flexible point.
apiculum (kort) brod A short, distinct, flexible terminal point.
apocarpous apokarp A flower with carpels free from one another, as in Ranunculus.
apomictic apomiktisk A plant that propagates by a non-sexual mode, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apomixis apomiksi Any form of reproduction by non-sexual means, including seed formation without fertilization (agamospermy) and vegetative reproduction.
apophysis apofyse, skjold A thickened terminal part of the ovuliferous scale on the cone of certain pines; a projection or protuberance.
With small appendages.
appressed tiltrykt Pressed closely against another organ but not united with it, e.g. hairs on the stem.
arborescent vedagtig Tree-like in growth or general appearance; applied to non-woody plants and to shrubs becoming tree-like in size.
archegonium arkegonium In non-seed plants, the structures where eggs are produced.
arcuate bueformet Curved like a bow.
areola celle The area delimited by one mesh in a web pattern; e.g. a distinct area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, or the space bounded by the finest veins in a leaf-blade.
areolate areolat Marked out into small, usually angular spaces.
aril frøkappe A more or less succulent covering around a seed, inside the pericarp and outside the seed coat, as in Taxus.
arista børste An awn or bristle.
aristate forsynet med børster, aristat Having an awn or bristle at the tip.
articulate leddelt Jointed.
ascending opstigende Growing erect after an oblique beginning, usually curved.
asexual reproduction asexuel/ukønnet formering The formation of new individuals without the fusion of gametes, the offspring being genetically identical to the parent.
asperous ru Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with scabrid and muricate.
asymmetric asymmetrisk Irregular, with no plane of symmetry.
auricle bladøre An ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf or a leaflet.
With auricles.
autogamous autogam With autogamy.
autogamy autogami Within-flower fertilization; also (from genetical point of view) within-individual fertilization.
autopolyploid autopolyploid A polyploid species resulting from one species doubling its chromosome number.
awn avne A bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass flower.
axil bladhjørne The angle between main and lateral axes, e.g. the angle between a bract or leaf and the axis bearing it.
On an axis; of a placenta, on the central axis of the ovary.
axillary aksillær In the axil.
axis akse The main or central stem of a plant or inflorescence.
basal basal, grundstillet At or near the base; of a placenta, having the ovules attached at the base of the ovary.
basifixed basifiks Attached at or by the base; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the base of the anther.
basigynous basigyn In sedges, with female flowers at the base of the spike.
basiscopic bagudvendt, bagudrettet Facing towards the base or proximal end of an organ.
beak næb A prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
berry bær A juicy indehiscent fruit, with the seed(s) embedded in a fleshy tissue, as the tomato.
bi- to-, tve- Two, twice.
biconvex bikonveks Convex on two sides.
bidentate dobbelt tandet Ambiguous; use "with two teeth" or "doubly dentate" instead.
biennial bienn, toårig A plant that needs two years to complete its life cycle, not flowering in the first season.
bifid kløvet Two-cleft.
bilabiate tolæbet Two-lipped.
bilocular torummet Having two cavities.
bilomentum ledskulpe A siliqua which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
binary name binært navn The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of the genus followed by the specific epithet.
bipartite tvedelt Divided nearly to the base into two parts.
bipinnate dobbelt finnet Twice pinnate, i.e. the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf are themselves pinnate.
bisexual hermafroditisk, Bearing both male and female organs together, e.g. in the same flower.
bisymmetric bisymmetrisk Of flowers, having two planes of symmetry, as in Brassicaceae.
biternate dobbelt tredelt Twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.
blade plade The expanded part of a leaf.
bloom dug (eg. blådugget frugt) A delicate, waxy, easily removed covering to fruit, leaves, twigs etc.; see also pruinose.
bract støtteblad; storsvøb(Apiaceae) A modified, often scale-like leaf subtending a flower, an inflorescence or a branch; in the Apiaceae applied to the leaves at the base of the rays of a compound umbel; in the Pinaceae applied to the outer scale subtending the ovuliferous scale of a cone.
bracteate med støtteblade, med storsvøb With bracts.
bracteole forblad A supplementary or secondary bract on the pedicel of a flower; usually paired in dicotyledons, single in monocotyledons.
brevistylous kortgriflet Short-styled; of plants or flowers having short styles and long stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
bud knop An immature shoot covered with tough scales, or an undeveloped flower usually protected by the calyx.
bud-scales knopskæl Scales enclosing a bud before it expands.
bulb løg A swollen, usually underground organ made up of a condensed stem and succulent, scale-like leaves or leaf bases.
bulbil yngleknop A small, usually axillary bulb or tuber, usually formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.
With bulbils.
caducous affaldende Falling off at an early stage.
caespitose tueformet Growing in tufts, tufted.
A dot-like or linear structure with incrassate and/or brightly coloured tissue in e.g. leaves or tepals.
In the Poaceae used for the incrassate lowermost part of the lemma, which is sometimes pointed and/or hairy.
calyptra rodhætte A cap- or hood-like covering that protects the root tip.
calyx bæger Collective term for the sepals of one flower; when the sepals are partly fused the calyx tube is the fused part of the calyx, the calyx lobes the free part of the sepals.
campanulate klokkeformet Bell-shaped.
canaliculate furet With a longitudinal groove or channel.
capillary hårfin Very slender, hair-like; of leaves, finely dissected as in submerged leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis.
capitulum kurv, hoved An inflorescence with a dense cluster of sessile flowers borne on a flattened or vaulted receptacle, e.g. Asteraceae and Dipsacaceae.
capsule kapsel A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more united carpels.
carnose kødet, sukkulent Synonymous with succulent.
carpel frugtblad The ovule-bearing unit having its margins fused together, or fused with those of other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary.
cartilaginous bruskagtig Hard and tough, but slightly pliable.
caryopsis skalfrugt A dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall, characteristic of Poaceae.
catkin rakle A spike of more or less reduced flowers (often unisexual and without perianth); in the strict sense pendent and flexible.
caudate haleformet Having a long tail-like tip or appendage.
caudicle polliniestilk A thread to which a pollen mass is attached (Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae).
cauliflorous kauliflori Of plants with flowers and fruits borne on old wood.
cauline stængel- Borne on the stem.
ceratophyllid flydeplante A plant which is free-floating in the water or lying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Ceratophyllum.
chamaephyte dværgbusk A plant with winter buds above ground, but below 25 cm.
chartaceous papiragtig Having a papery consistency.
chasmogamous chasmogam Of flowers which open, thus giving possibilities for cross-pollination.
chlorotic klorotisk Applied to a plant appearing pale green or yellow due to abnormally low chlorophyll content caused by deficiency or disease.
choripetalous frikronet With the petals free from each other.
The study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
ciliate ciliat, randhåret With regularly arranged fine, more or less patent hairs along the margin, like the hairs of an eyelash.
Spirally coiled like the head of a crozier, as developing leaves of ferns; spirally rolled from apex to base, when applied to arrangement of parts in the bud.
circumscissile omkringskåret (~buddike) Of capsules, opening with a circular split around the top, cutting off a cap or lid.
cirrhose med slyngtråd Tendrilled, ending in a slender appendage that is wavy or spirally rolled up.
cladode kladodie A stem with the form and function of a leaf (same as phylloclade and cladophyll), as in Asparagus and Cytisus.

clasping omsluttende Grasping, embracing.
With regular slots or holes, resembling a lattice.
claw negl The narrow, stalk-like proximal part of a petal, sepal or bract.
clavate kølleformet Club-shaped, slender at base and distally gradually thickened.
cleistogamous kleistogam Of flowers which do not open but become self-pollinated in the bud stage.
climber klatrende Growing more or less erect by winding or climbing with roots, hooks or tendrils, using other objects as support.
clonal klondannende Forming stands of genetically identical individuals by vegetative reproduction.
clone klon Genetically identical individuals, produced asexually from one parent.
Of the arrangement of petals in a bud, a variant of imbricate where one petal, being larger than the others, and hollowed like a helmet, covers all the others.
cochleariform skeformet Concave like a spoon, spoon-like.
Coiled like a snail-shell.
Of a seed coat covered with small rounded or hillock-like elevations.
Of a pollen grain, having elongated apertures in the wall.
Of a pollen grain, having apertures which are elongated at the outer surface of the pollen wall, but roundish at its inner surface.
column søjle A structure formed by the union of the staminal filaments and the style in the Orchidaceae.
columnar søjlelignende Column-like.
commissure sammenføjning, kommissur A seam, the line along which two organs are fused or adhere, e.g. the interfacing of two carpels in an ovary, and the scarious areas uniting the calyx lobes in some Caryophyllaceae.
complex kompleks An assemblage of closely related taxa which may be difficult to define or are very variable.
compound sammensat The opposite of simple, composed of two or more units; of a leaf, divided right to the rachis into distinct leaflets; of an inflorescence, when the same pattern of branching is repeated twice or more times, e.g. compound umbel.
compressed sammentrykt Flattened, usually laterally, bringing the sides closer together as the pod of a pea.
cone kogle A more or less compact structure of sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis, woody in Pinaceae. Also applied to conelike infructescences in some flowering plants.
cone scale kogleskæl The ovuliferous scale and its bract fused together in the Cupressaceae.
confluent sammenflydende The running together of two parts into one, blending.
connate sammenvokset Fused to another organ or other organs of the same kind, e.g. petals connate.
connective knapbånd (støvknapbånd) The part of the anther connecting the pollen-containing thecae.
connivent sammenstødende Converging or coming into contact, but not actually fused or united.
Almost cone-shaped.
contiguous berørende hinanden Touching at the edges with no gap between.
contorted snoet Spirally twisted; of floral parts in a bud, a form of imbricate arrangement in which each segment with one edge overlapping the adjacent segment.
contracted sammentrukket Drawn together to become shorter or narrower.
convolute sammenrullet Rolled up longitudinally.
cordate hjerteformet Of leaf base, having two equal more or less rounded lobes at base.
cordiform hjerteformet Shaped like a heart, in outline.
coriaceous læderagtig Of a leathery texture.
corm knold A short, solid, swollen, usually underground stem or stem base.
corolla krone Collective term for the petals of a flower; when the petals are partly fused, the tube is the fused part of the corolla, the lobes are the free part of the petals.
corona bikrone A ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower.
coronal scales bikroneflige Flaps (usually two) at the base of the petal limb in some Caryophyllaceae, e.g. Lychnis, Viscaria.
corymb halvskærm A racemose inflorescence in which the lower flowers have longer pedicels than those of the flowers above, producing a flat-topped or slightly vaulted inflorescence.
corymbose halvskærm- Having flowers in corymbs. The term is sometimes used of a corymb-like inflorescence.
costa midtribbe, -nerve The midrib or rachis of a pinna.
In ferns, the midrib or rachis of a pinnule.
cotyledon kimblad The primary leaves of an embryo or a seedling, 1 in monocotyledons, usually 2 in dicotyledons, 2- to several in gymnosperms; usually quite different in appearance from subsequent leaves.
crenate rundtakket Of the margin of a flat organ, with rounded teeth.
crenulate fint rundtakket Of the margin of a flat organ, with small, rounded teeth.
crested forsynet med kam eller ribbe With an elevated, irregular ridge, resembling the crest of a helmet; chiefly applied to seeds and to appendages of the anthers.
crimson højrød A deep red colour, only slightly purplish.
crispate kruset Curly, wavy or crinkled.
cross fertilization krydsbefrugtning Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a genetically different individual.
cross pollination krydsbestøvning, fremmedsbestøvning, -pollinering The transfer of pollen from the anthers of one individual to the stigma of a different individual of the same species.
crown krone The part of a tree above the level of the lowest branch.
crozier bispestav A bishop's stick; used of the young coiled leaf in many ferns.
crustaceous skorpeagtig Hard, thin and brittle.
cryptogam kryptogam A plant that produces spores, not seeds. Among vascular plants, the ferns and fern allies.
cucullate hætteformet Hooded, hood-shaped.
culm strå The stem of Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.
cuneate kileformet Wedge-shaped (with straight, converging sides).
cupule skål A small cup; in Fagaceae, a cup-shaped, hardened structure enclosing one or a few fruits.
cuspidate kort tilspidset Abruptly tapering into a sharp, rigid point.
cylindrical cylindrisk Like a cylinder, i.e. long and narrow with a circular cross-section.
cymbiform bådformet Boat-shaped, synonymous with navicular.
cyme kvast An inflorescence, or part of an inflorescence, in which each flower terminates a growing axis, and where further flowers are formed on branches arising below it.
cymose kvastagtig Of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud.
A small, dry, indehiscent single-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary, characteristic of Asteraceae.
An outgrowth from the cell wall, encrusted with calcium carbonate.
Having 10 of the basic sets of chromosomes.
deciduous løvfældende Not persistent, falling seasonally; of leaves, falling in the autumn.
decumbent nedliggende Reclining on the ground but with the tip turning up.
decurrent nedløbende Extending downwards; of a lateral organ, having its base prolonged down the main axis, e.g. when a leaf continues along the stem as a flange.
decussate parvist/korsvist modsatte Of opposite leaves, when the successive pairs are at right angles to each other.
deflexed nedbøjet - indadkrummet Bent sharply downwards.
dehiscent opspringende Opening naturally at maturity to release seeds, spores or pollen.
deltoid deltaformet, murskeformet Pyramid-shaped.
Tree-shaped, resembling a tree in form but not in size, e.g. dendroid hairs.
dentate tandet Toothed, with the teeth directed outwards.
denticulate fint tandet Minutely toothed.
depauperate reduceret Starved or reduced; refers to plants less well developed than in normally grown ones.
depressed nedtrykt, fladtrykt Flattened, somewhat sunken in the centre.
descending nedstigende Having a direction gradually downwards.
determinate "lukket" blomsterstand sympodial Of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the growth of the main axis; of an inflorescence, ending in a flower or an aborted floral bud, e.g. cyme, panicle.
Having the stamens united into two groups, or one free, the others united (Fabaceae).
dichasium toarmet kvast A cyme with two branches from each node.
Separation in time between pollen presentation from anthers and pollen reception on to stigmas within the flower. A dichogamous species may be protandrous or protogynous.
dichotomous dikotom, gaffeldelt Branching by forking into two equal branches.
dicotyledon tokimbladet, dikotyledon A flowering plant whose seedling has two cotyledons.
digitate fingret Of a compound leaf, when the leaflets diverge from the same point like the fingers of a hand.
dilated udvidet Expanded, widened.
dimorphic dimorf With two different forms.
dioecious tvebo, særbo Having male and female flowers on separate plants.
diploid diploid Having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.
disc diskus Anything disc-shaped, e.g. the top of the hips in Rosa; a fleshy, usually nectar-secreting ring between whorls of floral parts or borne directly on the ovary; the central part of the capitulum (with tubular flowers) in some Asteraceae (cf. ray flowers).
discoid skive Like a disc or plate; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with tubular flowers only.
dissected delt Divided into segments.
distal distal Far from the point of attachment; the distalmost part of a leaf is the tip.
distichous toradet Two-ranked; regularly arranged one above the other in two opposite rows, one on each side of the stem.
Of anthers, with two thecae (and thus four pollen sacs).
Of flowers, opening only during daylight.
divaricate udspærret Widely spreading, dividing into widely divergent branches.
divergent divergerende Of two or more like structures, spreading so that the apices are further apart than their bases.
dormancy hvile, dvale A resting phase with reduced metabolism found in buds, seeds and spores.
dorsifixed dorsifiks Attached at or by the back; of anthers, when the filament is attached to the abaxial side of the anther.
dorsiventral dorsiventral, med en ryg- og en bugside Having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.
doubly dentate dobbelttandet Dentate with small teeth on the large ones.
doubly serrate dobbelt savtakket Serrate with small teeth on the large ones.
drooping nikkende Slightly hanging, so that the apex is directed towards the the horizon.
drupaceous stenfrugt- Drupe-like but not strictly a drupe.
drupe stenfrugt A juicy, indehiscent fruit with one or a few seeds, each surrounded by a stony layer formed from the fruit wall, e.g. Prunus.
duplicato-dentate dobbelttandet Doubly dentate, i.e. with toothed teeth.
dwarf-shrub dværgbusk Small shrub, a small and woody perennial plant, up to 100 cm tall, with many stems or branching at the base.
e-, ex- uden, manglende Without, lacking; from, out of, away from.
ebracteate uden støtteblade Without bracts.
echinate pigget Spinose, bearing numerous spines, prickles or stiff hairs.
ecotype økotype A genetically fixed variant of a taxon particularly adapted to some environmental condition.
ectotrophic mycorrhiza ektotrofisk mykorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus forming a layer outside the root.
eglandular uden kirtler, kirtelløs Without glands.
elaiosome olielegeme An oil-rich appendage or distinct swelling of a seed or fruit, serving as food for ants and hence an aid to dispersal by these.
elater elater, svingtråd In Equisetum, hygroscopic bands attached to the spore and serving for dispersal (there are usually four elaters on each spore).
electrophoresis elektroforese Technique for separating molecules of different sizes and charges (especially isozymes).
ellipsoid ellipsoid A solid shape elliptic in side view.
elliptic elliptisk A flat shape widest at the middle and 1.2-3 times as long as wide. If broader, broadly elliptic, if narrower, narrowly elliptic.
Long-shoot plants, which is free-floting in the water or laying on the bottom, but not rooted, e.g. Elodea.
elongated forlænget Prolonged, extended, notably long.
emarginate udrandet With a broad, shallow notch in a truncate apex.
embryo kim, embryo A young plant contained within the seed.
enclosed indesluttet, ikke udragende Not protruding.
endocarp endokarp The innermost layer of the fruit wall; in a drupe the stony layer surrounding the seed.
endosperm frøhvide The nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo of a seed.
endotrophic mycorrhiza endotrofisk mykorrhiza Mycorrhiza, with the fungus living within the roots.
endozoochorous med endozoisk spredning Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed within animals, i.e. eaten.
ensiform sværdformet Sword-shaped.
entire hel, helrandet Having a smooth margin, not toothed or dissected.
entomophilous insektbestøvet Insect-pollinated.
epi- upon, on top of or added to.
epicalyx yderbæger A whorl of bracts just below a flower, calyx-like but outside and additional to the calyx.
Associated with the epidermis.
epidermis epidermis The outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually one cell thick.
epigeal epigæisk Above ground; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are green and photosynthesizing, are raised above ground.
epigynous oversædig Having perianth and stamens inserted above the ovary, i. e., having an inferior ovary.
epiphyte epifyt A plant growing on another plant, but not parasitizing it.
epizoochorous med epizooisk spredning Of a taxon whose seeds are dispersed on the outside of animals.
erect opret Upright, directed strictly upwards.
erectopatent skråt opadrettet Directed obliquely upwards.
Gnawed or bitten; of a margin, finely and irregularly eroded.
evergreen stedsegrøn Bearing leaves throughout the year.
exine exine, eksine The outer, very resistant layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain; it is often ornamented.
The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
exserted udragende Protruding, e.g. of stamens protruding from a corolla tube.
exstipulate uden fodflige Without stipules.
extrafloral ekstrafloral Of nectaries, which are situated outside the flowers, e.g. on the leaves or stipules.
extrorse extrors, ekstrors Of anthers, opening away from the centre of the flower.
At or concerning the face, the exposed or flat side.
facultative fakultativ Having the ability to utilize certain conditions but not being dependent upon them, or, being able to adopt an alternative strategy or alternative properties, e.g. sexual and apogamic reproduction.
falcate seglformet Sickle-shaped.
farinose melet Mealy.
fascicle bundt, knippe A close cluster or a bundle of similar organs (usually leaves or flowers) arising from more or less the same point.
fasciculate i bundter, knipper Clustered, or appearing in bundles.
fastigiate fastigiat, søjleformet With erect, parallel and clustered branches, giving the plant a narrow outline.
fertile fertil Producing seed or spores capable of germination; of anthers, containing viable pollen.
fertilization befrugtning The union of male and female gametes.
fibrous fibrøs Composed of or consisting of loosely arranged woody fibres.
fibrous roots trævlerod A root system in which there is no main axis, as in the monocotyledons.
filament støvtråd A thread; the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther.
filiform trådformet Threadlike, slender and elongated.
fimbriate frynset Fringed.
fissured furet With a coarse, uneven surface, applied to the bark of a stem or trunk.
fistulose rørformet, pibet Cylindrical and hollow; tube-like.
flaccid slap Limp, unable to support its own weight.
fleshy kødet
flexible bøjelig Pliable.
flexuous bølget Of a stem or hair, wavy.
floccose tottet Covered with soft hairs which tend to adhere in small tufts.
floriferous blomsterbærende, blomstrende Bearing flowers.
flower blomst The reproductive unit in angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth.
foliaceous bladlignende Leaf-like, having the shape or texture of a leaf.
follicle bælgkapsel A dry, usually many-seeded fruit developed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion (Ranunculaceae).
foveate grubet Pitted.
foveolate smågrubet Minutely pitted, with small depressions.
free fri When applied to floral organs: not fused.
free-central fri midtstillet Of a placenta, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary.
A large, divided leaf.
fruit frugt Strictly, the ripe, fertilized ovary and its seeds, but usually also comprising false fruits, which are formed also from other floral parts, e.g. bracts or receptacle.
fruticose busklignende Shrub-like (woody).
funicle frøstreng The stalk of an ovule.
fusiform tenformet Spindle-shaped, a body thickest at the middle and tapering towards the ends.
gamete gamet A spezialized reproductive cell (usually haploid) which in sexual reproduction fuses with another of the opposite sex, to give the zygote which develops to the embryo.
gametophyte gametofyt The haploid plant generation that bears the sexual organs; in pteridophytes an independently living organism (the prothallium), in spermatophytes the pollen grains (male) and the embryo-sac (female).
Fertilization of ovules by pollen from a different flower on the same plant.
gemma ynglelegeme(-knop) Synonymous with bulbil.
gemmiferous med ynglelegeme(-knop) With gemmae (bulbils).
geniculate knæbøjet Abruptly bent like a knee.
genome genom A complete chromosome set; a diploid has two genomes.
genotype genotype The total set of genes in an individual.
genus slægt A group of species which are fairly closely related; genera which are relatively closely related form a family.
geophyte geofyt, jordplante A plant with subterranean winter buds (i.e. surviving the unfavourable season by rhizomes, bulbs, corms or tubers), usually flowering in early spring.
With a rounded pouch-like swelling on one side, as in the calyx of Satureja acinos.
glabrous glat Without hairs.
gland kirtel A multicellular secretory structure, usually round, on or within the surface of an organ. When raised on a stalk usually called a glandular hair.
glandular med kirtler, kirtlet Bearing glands; functioning as a gland.
glandular hair kirtelhår A trichome having a head composed of secretory cells borne on a stalk.
globose kugleformet Spherical.
A small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.
glumaceous avneagtig Glume-like.
glume yderavner One of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet.
granulose kornet With a sand-like surface structure.
group gruppe Any recognizable non-formal assemblage of taxa, usually understood in a wider sense than aggregate or complex.
gymnosperm nøgenfrøet A seed-bearing plant with ovules, and hence seeds, developing on the surface of a leaf.
gynobasic gynobasisk A style which, because of the infolding of the ovary wall, appears to be inserted at the base of the ovary, as in the Lamiaceae.
gynodioecious gynodiøsisk Having female and bisexual flowers, but on separate plants.
gynoecium gynøcium The female parts of a flower; the carpels.
gynomonoecious gynomonøsisk Having bisexual and female flowers on the same plant.
gynophore gynofor A stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts, as in Silene.
A structure formed from the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic region of the gynoecium, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
gynostemium søjle In Orchidaceae, synonymous with column.
habit habitus The general appearance of a plant.
habitat habitat The environment in which a plant lives.
halophyte halofyt, saltplante A plant adapted to living in saline habitats.
Barbed or hooked at the apex.
hapaxanthous hapaksant A plant bearing fruit but once and then dying; either annual, biennial or requiring several or many years to reach the flowering and fruiting state.
haploid haploid Having a single set of chromosomes.
hastate spydformet Of the base of a flat organ, spear-shaped; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed outwards.
head hoved A racemose inflorescence with unstalked flowers aggregated in a dense cluster.
helicoid skrue- Coiled.
helicoid cyme skruekvast A monochasium where the branching takes place repeatedly to the same side.
helophyte helofyt A water or swamp plant protruding above the water surface, but with submerged winter buds.
hemi- halv- Half-.
hemicryptophyte hemikryptofyt, jordskorpeplante A plant with winter buds close to the ground-level.
herb urt A plant dying down to ground-level each year.
herbaceous urteagtig Not woody; soft and green, having the texture of a herb.
herkogamy herkogami Separation in space between anthers and stigmas within the flower.
hermaphroditic hermafroditisk, tvekønnet Bisexual.
hetero- forskellig-, uens- Different, other, uneven.
heteroblastic heteroblastisk Having progressive change in form and size of successive organs (especially leaves), e.g. difference in leaf shape between the juvenile and adult states.
heterophyllous heterofyli Having leaves of two or more distinct forms, often differing in shape and function, e.g. broad-leaved floating leaves and capillary submerged leaves, as in Ranunculus aquatilis.
heterosporous heterospor Having two kinds of spores (megaspores, female; and microspores, male) as in all spermatophytes and a few pteridophytes.
heterostylous heterostyl Of species having heterostyly.
hexaploid heksaploid Having 6 basic sets of chromosomes.
hilum navle The scar on a seed indicating its point of attachment.
hirsute håret With long, coarse, rough hairs.
hispid stivhåret With bristles or stiff, bristly hairs.
holotype holotype A single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name.
homo- ens- like, of the same kind.
homogamous homogam With coincidence of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity within a flower; also applied to a plant with only one kind of flowers in the cluster.
homologous homolog Having the same phylogenetic origin but not necessarily the same structure or function.
homosporous homospor Having spores all of one kind, as most pteridophytes.
homostylous homostyl Not heterostylous.
hooded hætteformet With a hollow, arched covering, as the upper petal in Aconitum.
hyaline hindeaktig Colourless and transparent.
hydrochorous vandspredt Dispersed by water.
hydrophilous vandbestøvet Pollinated in water.
hydrophyte hydrofyt A submerged or floating aquatic plant with winter buds at the bottom.
hypanthium underbæger A tubular or cup-shaped extension of the receptacle, bearing floral parts above the base (and often above the top) of the ovary of a flower, in perigynous and epigynous flowers.
hypo- under- Below, under, beneath.
relating to the hypodermis.
hypodermis hypodermis A morphologically distinct layer of cells immediately beneath the epidermis, often containing large amounts of sclerenchymatous cells strengthening the tissue.
hypogeal hypogæisk Subterranean; of germination, when the cotyledons, which are thick and contain reserve materials, remain within the seed coat below the ground, e.g. Vicia, Quercus.
hypogynous undersædig, hypogyn Having perianth and stamens inserted at the base of the ovary, i. e., ovary superior.
imbricate taglagt Overlapping like tiles on a roof.
imparipinnate uligefinnet Pinnate with an unpaired terminal leaflet.
inbreeding indavl The production of offspring by self-fertilization or from fertilization among genetically closely related parents.
incised indskåret Cut sharply, deeply and often irregularly.
inclining indadbøjet Bending downwards.
incrassate fortykket, opsvulmet Thickened or swollen.
indehiscent uopspringende Without opening mechanism to release seeds or spores.
indumentum behåring The covering of hairs (or other epidermal appendages, e.g. scales) of a plant.
induplicate indfoldet Of petals and sepals, folded inwards and with the outsides touching the neighbours.
indusium slør A thin scale covering a group of sporangia in many ferns.
inferior undersædig Of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts.
inflated opblæst Swollen or expanded; bladdery.
inflexed skarpt indadbøjet Bent sharply inwards.
inflorescence blomsterstand A group of flowers with their branches, bracts and bracteoles.
infraspecific infraspecifik Of lower taxonomic rank than species.
infructescence frugtstand A group of fruits in a plant, usually derived from an inflorescence.
inserted tilhæftet Attached to or arising from, e.g. stamens inserted on corolla.
integument frøhinde One or two outer protective layers of an ovule, developing into the seed-coat.
internode internodie, stængelled The portion of a stem between two successive leaves or leaf pairs, or between flowers of an inflorescence.
interrupted mellembrudt Of an inflorescence, with the flowers unevenly distributed along the axis, with large gaps.
interruptedly pinnate mellembrudt fjersnitdelt With alternating large and small leaflets.
The inner layer of the two-layered wall of a pollen grain.
introgression tilbagekrydsning, introgression The incorporation of genes from one species into the gene pool of another species by hybridization followed by backcrossing.
introrse intrors, indad Of anthers, opening towards the centre of the flower.
involucre svøb A whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster; the calyx-like structure at the base of a capitulum, as in the Asteraceae.
involute indrullet Rolled inwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the adaxial (upper) surface.
irregular uregelmæssig Having no plane of symmetry. Synonymous with asymmetric.
A submerged plant, rooted at the bottom, with leaves in a rosette.
Having an equal number of parts in whorls of different kinds, as in a flower with an equal number of members of each floral whorl.
isotype isotype A specimen which is a duplicate of the holotype, i.e. part of the same collection.
juvenile juvenil, ungdomsform Applied to youth forms, e.g. leaves formed on a young or coppiced plant which are different in shape from the adult leaves.
karyotype karyotype The characteristics of all the the chromosomes within the nucleus, especially their size, shape and number.
keel køl A prominent longitudinal ridge, like the keel of a boat; in Fabaceae, a boat-shaped structure, formed byf the two anterior (lower) united petals of a flower.
keeled kølet Ridged, like the keel of a boat.
labellum læbe A lip; a morphologically distinct median petal of an orchid flower.
labiate med læbe Lipped; a tubular corolla which in its upper end is expanded into one or (usually) two lips.
lacerate uregelmæssigt indskåret Deeply and irregularly cut, appearing as if torn.
lacinia flig A segment of a laciniately divided organ.
laciniate fliget Slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
lamina plade The blade of a leaf or petal.
lanate uldhåret Woolly, covered with long, curled and densely matted hairs.
lanceolate lancetformet Lance-shaped; narrow and tapering at both ends, c. 3 times as long as wide, widest below the middle.
lateral roots siderødder Roots arising from the main root.
latex mælkesaft Milky fluid, usually whitish.
lax åben, løs Loose arrangement; opposite to dense.
leaf blad An expanded, usually photosynthetic organ of a plant.
leaflet småblad Each unit of a compound leaf.
lectotype lectotype A specimen selected from among those cited with the original description, to serve in place of a holotype which is missing or has been destroyed, or where no holotype was designated.
legume bælg A fruit type in Fabaceae; a synonyme to pod.
lemma nedre inderavne, dækblad In a grass floret, the lower of the two bracts enclosing the flower.
An aquatic plant which is floating on the surface of the water and not rooted at the bottom; as Lemna.
lenticular linseformet Lens-shaped, biconvex and +- circular in outline.
liana slyngplante (lian) A climbing, woody plant.
ligulate tunge- With a ligule; strap-shaped. In Asteraceae, applied to a head with ligulate flowers only.
ligule ligula, skedehinde A strap-shaped structure; the flattened part of the ray corolla in the Asteraceae; a membrane or a fringe of hairs between the sheath and the blade of a leaf, especially in grasses; a small adaxial membranous appendage near the leaf-base in some pteridophytes.
limb plade, krave The expanded part of a petal or tepal; the expanded part of a sympetalous corolla, as distinct from the tube.
linear lineær, linieformet Long and narrow with +- parallel sides; in the strict sense with a length/width ratio of about 12:1.
lingulate tungeformet Tongue-shaped.
lip læbe One of the two segments of a two-lipped corolla or calyx; one of the tepals of an orchid flower.
lobe flig, lap A division of an organ, as of a leaf.
lobed fliget, lappet Partly divided into a few, broad, and mostly determinate number of segments, e.g. two-lobed, three-lobed etc.
loculicidal rumdelende Applied to a capsule opening along the midrib of each carpel.
loculus rum
locus locus, sted
lomentum ledbælg A pod, which at maturity breaks transversally into one-seeded segments.
longistylous langgriflet Long-styled; of plants or flowers having long styles and short stamens, used in heterostylous taxa.
long-shoot langskud A shoot with long internodes and of potentionally unlimited growth, especially in trees and shrubs.
lyrate lyreformet Deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
lyrato- lyre- As prefix to terms describing leaf shapes means the occurrence of a large terminal lobe.
macro- stor Large.
magenta rødviolet A dark purplish-red colour.
Withering without falling off, as the sepals and petals in some flowers or the leaves at the base of some plants.
marginal kantstillet At or very close to a margin; of a placenta, having the ovules attached on the fused margins of the carpel, i.e. along the suture.
An aggregation of pollen or spores.
mauve lilla A pale purple colour.
medifixed medifiks Attached at or by the middle; of anthers, when the filament is attached near the middle.
mega- stor Large.
megaspore megaspore In a heterosporous plant, the female spores that give rise to female gametophytes.
meiosis meiose A special form of cell division (in sporangia, pollen-sacs or ovules) in which the daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes.
membranous hindeagtig Like a membrane in consistency; thin, soft, flexible, and more or less translucent.
mericarp delfrugt A one-seeded portion of a many-seeded fruit that breaks at maturity into units (e.g., Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Boraginaceae, Malvaceae).
-merous -tallig The number of parts per whorl that characterizes a particular flower, e.g., 5-merous, pentamerous, having five parts.
meso- midt- Middle.
mesocarp mesokarp The middle layer in a fruit wall, often fleshy, sometimes missing.
In species with trimorphic heterostyly: plants or flowers having long and short stamens, and styles intermediate in length.
micro- lille Small.
microspore mikrospore In a heterosporous plant, the male spores that give rise to male gametophytes.
midrib midtribbe, midtnerve The central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
mitosis mitose A division in which a nucleus gives rise to two daughter nuclei, each identical to the parent nucleus; this procedure is necessary for growth and development.
monadelphous énknippet Of stamens, with the filaments united into one bundle.
mono- en- One-.
monochasium enarmet kvast A cyme with one branch from each node.
monocotyledon enkimbladet A flowering plant whose seedlings have only one cotyledon.
monoecious enbo, sambo Having male and female flowers on the same plant.
Applied to a spore with a simple scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
monophyletic monofyletisk A group where the members are all descendants of a common ancestor.
monopodial enakset, monopodial With a persistent terminal growing point.
monothecal enrummet With a single cavity or cell; of anthers, with one theca (and thus at most two pollen sacs).
monotypic monotypisk With only one taxon of the next lower rank, e.g. a family containing only one genus.
mucro brod A short, distinct, stiff terminal point.
mucronate brodspidset Ending abruptly in a short, stiff point.
multinodal flerleddet With numerous nodes.
muricate pigget Rough to the touch, with short, hard outgrowths of the epidermis.
muticous but, stakløs Pointless, awnless, blunt; used to indicate contrast to pointed.
mycorrhiza mykorrhiza A close physical association between a fungus and the roots of a plant from which both seem to benefit.
myrmecochorous myrespredning Dispersed by ants.
naked nøgen Not enclosed; of sporangia, not covered by an indusium; of seeds, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll and not enclosed within an ovary; of flowers, without perianth.
nanophanerophyte nanofanerofyt A woody plant with winter buds 25-100 cm above the ground.
navicular bådformet Boat-shaped.
Of an organ secreting nectar, or with nectar-secreting organs.
nectary nektarium, honninggemme A nectar-secreting organ.
neotype neotype A specimen selected to serve in place of a holotype, where none of the original material to which the name was originally applied is known to have been preserved.
nerve nerve Synonymous with vein.
nigrescent efterhånden sort Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming black" and "blackish").
nocturnal nat- Nightly.
nodding nikkende Bending very much, so that the apex is directed downwards.
node led The position on the stem where leaves, branches and/or flowers are borne.
nomen conservandum konserveret navn A name that has been formally accepted as the correct name contrary to the usual principles of botanical nomenclature.
nomen illegitimum llegitimt navn, ugyldigt navn A name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous because the taxon to which it was applied had already been named, or had already been applied to another plant.
nomen nudum
A name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it applies, and without reference.
nomen rejiciendum
A name rejected in favour of a nomen conservandum.
nothomorph nothomorf, hybridform One of several morphological variants of a particular hybrid.
nothospecies hybridart A hybrid between two species, when regarded as a unit and given a binary name.
nothosubspecies hybridunderart A hybrid between two subspecies, when regarded as a distinct unit and given a trinary name.
nucellus nucellus The inner part of an ovule, within which the embryo-sac develops.
nut nød A hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but usually containing a single seed.
nymphaeid flydebladplante A plant which has floating leaves and is rooted at the bottom.
ob- omvendt The other way up from normal, usually flattened or widened at the distal rather than proximal end.
obconical omvendt kegleformet Conical but attached at the narrower end.
obcordate omvendt hjerteformet Of a leaf, broad and notched at the tip.
oblate bredt rundagtigt Almost circular but wider than long.
obligate obligat Being totally dependent upon certain environmental conditions, or being unable to change strategy.
oblique skæv With unequal sides, especially of a leaf base, as in Ulmus; slanting.
oblong aflang A flat shape with middle part +- parallel-sided, 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly oblong, if more, narrowly oblong.
obovate omvendt ægformet A flat shape similar in shape to ovate but widest at the distal end and 1.2-3x as long as wide. If less, broadly obovate, if more, narrowly obovate.
obtuse but Blunt or rounded at apex.
ochrea kræmmerhus A sheath, encircling the stem as a cylinder from the node upwards, as in the Polygonaceae.
A structure similar to an ochrea, but encircling axes in the inflorescence, as in the Polygonaceae.
opaque glansløs, mat Dull, non-translucent.
operculum låg A lid, such as the deciduous cap of a circumscissile capsule.
opposite modsat Of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral parts, on the same radius.
orbicular cirkelrund A flat shape, circular in outline.
orifice åbning The opening, the mouth.
outbreeding krydsbefrugtning The production of offspring from cross fertilization.
outcrossing krydsbestøvning Deposition of pollen on the stigma of a different plant.
ovary frugtknude The basal part of the gynoecium containing the ovules.
ovate ægformet Egg-shaped (applied to flat objects): widest below the middle and 1.2-2 times as long as wide. If wider, broadly ovate, if narrower, narrowly ovate.
ovoid ægformet A solid shape with the form of an egg.
ovule frøanlæg Organ (inside the ovary in Magnoliopsida, naked in Coniferopsida) that contains the embryo-sac, which in turn contains the egg; developing into the seed after fertilization.
ovuliferous scale frøskæl A structure bearing ovules and becoming woody at seed maturity; applied to scales in the cone in gymnosperms.
palate gane A projection or raised area on the lower lip of some bilabiate corollas; sometimes, as in Anthirrhinum, it closes the throat completely.
palea øvre inderavne, forblad In a grass floret, the upper of the two bracts enclosing a flower.
palmate håndfliget, håndlappet Of a simple leaf with three or more distinct lobes whose veins meet at the base.
palmatisect hånddelt Palmately divided almost down to the midrib.
panduriform violinformet Fiddle-shaped, obovate with a sinus in each side below the middlle.
panicle top A compound, much-branched cymose inflorescence.
papery papirsagtig Having a papery consistency.
papilla papil A short, rounded nipple-like bump or projection of an epidermal cell.
papillose papilløs Covered with papillae.
pappus fnok Hairs, simple or feathery, or sometimes bristles or scales formed outside the corolla and surrounding the apex of the fruit (Asteraceae).
paraphyletic parafyletisk A group of taxa that does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.
paraphyses parafyser Sterile filaments intermingled with sporangia.
parasite parasit, snylter An organism living on or in a different organism, and nourishing from it.
parenchyma parenkym Unspecialized tissue, often constituting the main part of many organs.
parietal vægstillet Attached to the margins of a structure; of a placenta, having the ovules attached to placentas on the wall of the ovary.
paripinnate ligefinnet Pinnate without an unpaired terminal leaflet.
partial inflorescence delblomsterstand A more or less distinct subunit of an inflorescence.
-partite delt Divided, almost to the base, into segments.
patent udstående Spreading, projecting more or less at right angles, or expanded.
pectinate kamformet, kamdelt Comb-like, with narrow, numerous and close segments arranged like the teeth of a comb.
pedate foddannet, fod- Palmately lobed but with the lateral lobes themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run to the same point as the rest.
pedicel blomsterstilk The stalk of the individual flower.
pedicellate stilket Stalked (of flowers).
peduncle blomsterstandens skaft The stalk of an inflorescense; in gymnosperms, the stalk which supports the cone.
pedunculate stilket Stalked (of inflorescences).
peltate skjoldformet Shield-shaped; of a flat, more or less circular organ with a central stalk.
pendent hængende Hanging down.
Having five parts.
pentaploid pentaploid Having 5 basic sets of chromosomes.
perennial flerårig A plant that lives for more than two years.
Of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely wrapped around the stem so that the stem appears to pass through the blade.
perianth bloster The calyx and corolla together, usually used when the calyx and corolla are not, or little differentiated.
perianth segment blosterblade The lobes of a partially fused perianth, especially when sepals and petals cannot be distinguished.
pericarp frugtvæg The fruit wall, developed from the ovary wall.
perigynous omkringsædig Of a flower with a superior ovary but with the calyx, corolla and stamens inserted above the base of the ovary on an extension of the receptacle which is not fused with the ovary.
periodically serrate periodisk savtakket Serrate, with some teeth, at regular intervals, larger and more prominent than the others.
Nutritive tissue in a seed similar to endosperm but derived from the nucellus.
A membrane or extra outer layer surrounding a spore.
perpendicular vinkelret Directed straight downwards, or at right angle with some other body.
persistent vedvarende Remaining attached, not falling off even though the original function of the organ has ceased, e.g. of petals not falling after flowering.
petal kronblad One of the segments of the inner whorl(s) of the perianth, usually conspicuously coloured.
petaloid kronbladlignende Petal-like; used for brightly coloured sepals, bracts or leaves.
petiolate stilket With a petiole, not sessile.
petiole bladstilk The stalk of a leaf.
petiolulate stilket With stalked leaflets.
petiolule småbladstilk The stalk of a leaflet.
phanerogam fanerogam, frøplante A plant reproducing by seeds.
phanerophyte fanerofyt A woody plant with winter buds at least 25 cm above the ground.
phenotype fænotype The physical characteristics of an organism.
phyllary kurvsvøb, kurvblade Sepal-like bracts on the outside of the capitulum in Asteraceae, with a gradual transition between innermost and outermost or arranged in distinct inner and outer whorls.
Synonymous with cladode.
phyllode fyllodium A leaf with an expanded, leaf-like petiole but lacking a true blade.
phylogeny fylogeni The relationships of a group as reflected by their evolutionary history, i.e. the lines of descent of the group members from their ancestors.
pilose blødhåret Hairy, covered with weak, soft hairs.
The primary division of a compound leaf; a pinna may be further subdivided into pinnules.
pinnate finnet Divided into pinnae.
pinnatifid fjerfliget Of a leaf cut deeply into lobes, but by far not to the midrib.
pinnatisect fjersnitdelt Pinnately dissected to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.
A division, or leaflet of a pinna; a pinnule may be further subdivided into tertiary segments.
pistil frugtanlæg The female organ of a flower, formed by a single carpel or a group of fused carpels.
pistillate hunlig Female (of flowers).
A sterile pistil, often rudimentary.
pith marv The spongy, parenchymatous central tissue in some stems and roots.
placenta frøstol The part within an ovary, to which the ovules are attached.
placentation placentation The arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.
plastic plastisk Varying in form according to environmental conditions, not according to genetic characteristics.
A cyme with more than two branches from each node.
The ability of a gene to influence more than one phenotypic attribute.
plicate foldet Folded.
plumose fjerformet Like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.
plurilocular flerrummet Hollow, with more than two rooms.
pod bælg A fruit type in Fabaceae, formed from a single carpel and splitting into two valves.
pollen pollen The powdery mass of microspores shed from the anthers of seed plants.
The pollen grains from two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) united to a coherent mass for dispersal as a unit in pollination (Asclepiadaceae).
pollinium pollinium, støvkølle In orchids, a coherent mass of pollen grains from one anther-lobe (theca) transferred as a unit in pollination.
poly- mange- Many.
Arising parallel at more than one occasion, from parents of the same species.
polygamous polygam, flerbo With both bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
polymorphic mangeformet With more than two distinct morphological variants.
polyphyletic polyfyletisk A group where the members originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.
polyploid polyploid Having three or more basic chromosome sets, e.g. 3 (triploid), 4 (tetraploid), 5 (pentaploid), 6 (hexaploid), 7 (heptaploid), 8 (octoploid), 9 (nonaploid), 10 (decaploid) etc.
Arising parallel in more than one place, from parents of the same species.
Of a pollen grain, with rounded apertures.
After, behind.
posterior bage(r)ste At the back; on the side toward the axis, as the upper lip of a bilabiate corolla.
Flowering or fruiting before the normal season.
Terminating abruptly in an uneven end, as if bitten off.
prickle lille torn A tough, broad-based, sharp-pointed outgrowth from the epidermis, as in Rosa.
pro parte
Partly, in part.
An outgrowth or appendage, or something which is going on.
procumbent nedliggende Trailing or spreading along the ground.
propagule diaspore A structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. a seed, a spore, or a part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the parent.
prostrate nedliggende Lying flat on the ground.
protandrous førsthanlig Of a flower, shedding the pollen before the stigma is receptive.
prothallus prothallium, forkim The small, independently living gametophyte generation of ferns and fern allies.
protogynous førsthunlig Of a flower, shedding the pollen after the stigma has ceased to be receptive.
Near to the organ's point of attachment.
A compact inflorescence of several small flowers, which simulates a single flower.
pteridophytes karsporeplanter Ferns and fern allies, i.e. Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Filicopsida.
puberulent fint dunhåret Covered with minute, short, soft, erect hairs.
The hair covering.
pubescent dunhåret Hairy.
pulvinate pudeformet Cushion-shaped.
A swelling at the base of the petiole, often glandular or responsive to touch.
punctate prikket Marked with dots, spots or minute glands.
pungent stikkende Ending in a hard, piercing point; having a sharp or strong taste or smell.
purple purpurfarvet A wide range of colours intermediate between red and blue.
pyriform pæreformet Pear-shaped.
quadrangular firkantet With four right angles; of a solid body, quadrangular in cross-section.
raceme klase An unbranched, elongated inflorescence which has pedicellate flowers maturing from the bottom upwards, no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex.
racemose klaseagtig Racemose inflorescences have no terminal flower and a potentially continuously growing apex, with flowers produced laterally from the main axis, the oldest flowers being the most lateral or lowermost ones; i.e. capitulum, catkin, corymb, raceme, spike and umbel.
Of a grass spikelet, the axis above the glumes.
rachis blomsterstandsakse The main axis - not the stalk - of a compound leaf or an inflorescence.
radiate udstrålende Diverging from a common centre; in Asteraceae, applied to a head with a central region of tubular (disc) flowers and an outer region of ligulate (ray) flowers.
radical grundstillet Basal.
ramet ramet One of several genetically identical individuals, arisen by vegetative propagation.
ray stråle Anything that radiates outwards, e.g. a branch of an umbel, stigma-ridges in Papaver and Nuphar.
reclining bagudrettet Turned or bent downward.
recurved tilbagebøjet Bent backwards.
reduplicate udfoldet With margins bent abruptly outwards and externally joined to each other, applied to arrangement of floral parts in the bud.
reflexed skarpt bagudbøjet Bent sharply backwards.
reniform nyreformet Kidney-shaped.
When the margin is uneven or wavy, with shallow undulations.
resin harpiks A dense sticky substance of oxidised hydrocarbons, produced by some plants, i.e. conifers.
resin duct harpikskanal Canals in the wood, leaves or needles of certain plants, containing resin.
resinous harpiks- Resin-like.
resupinate resupinat, omvendt Turned upside down by twisting of the stalk or the ovary; applied to zygomorphic flowers, a common feature in the Orchidaceae.
reticulate netåret Forming or covered with a network.
retrorse bagudrettet Directed towards the proximal end.
retuse indtrykt With a small incision in a round or blunt apex.
revolute tilbagerullet Rolled downwards or backwards; of a leaf, with the margins rolled towards the abaxial (lower) surface.
Bearing rhizomes, or in the form of a rhizome.
rhizome jordstængel, rodstok Underground or ground-level, usually horizontally growing stem, often more or less swollen or thickened.
rigid stiv, stift Stiff, not flexible.
rootstock rodstok An unprecise term applied to thickened, vertical, underground stems or parts.
rosette roset A cluster of tightly packed leaves circularly spreading in one plane.
rostellum næb A small beak; in orchids, an extension from the upper edge of the stigma.
rufescent rødmende Ambiguous (has been used both for "becoming red" and "reddish").
rugose rynket With a deeply wrinkled surface.
rugulose svagt rynket With minutely wrinkled surface.
ruminate foldet Very uneven and looking as if chewed, e.g. of bark, or of seeds with intrusions into the endosperm by infolding of the inner layer of the seed coat.
runcinate høvlformet With lobes or large teeth pointing towards the base of the leaf.
runner udløber Synonymous with stolon.
saccate sækformet Bag- or pouch-shaped.
sagittate pilformet Of the base of a flat organ, shaped like an arrow-head; of a leaf blade, narrow with two basal lobes directed downwards.
saprophyte saprofyt, rådplante A plant (usually lacking chlorophyll) which nourishes wholly or mainly from soluble organic compounds in decaying organisms.
scabrid ru Rough to the touch with short, hard projections. Synonymous with asperous and muricate.
scabridulous svagt ru Minutely roughened.
Synonymous with scabrid.
scale skæl A flattened, membranous or sometimes woody structure, usually a reduced leaf, a thin flap of tissue of epidermal origin or a flat, thin trichome.
scape skaft A flowering stem of a plant in which all the leaves are basal, none on the stem.
scapose med skaft With a scape; of herbs, with a basal rosette and an inflorescence rising from the centre of the rosette on a leafless stalk.
scarious hindeagtig Of thin, dry, membranous texture and not green; opposite of herbaceous.
scarlet skarlagensrød A warm, bright red colour with a tinge of yellow.
schizocarp spaltefrugt A dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into single-seeded units (mericarps) when ripe.
sciophyte skyggeplante A plant that grows only in shady places.
sclerenchyma sklerenkym Strengthening tissue in a partly or mostly non-woody organ.
scorpioid cyme svikkel A monochasium where the branching takes place alternately to the left and to the right and that is coiled up like a scorpion's tail when young.
scrambler klyngende plante, klatreplante Applied to a plant sprawling over other plants, fences etc. and being supported by these, usually by being anchored with hooks or tendrils.
scutate skjoldformet Buckler-shaped, resembling a small circular shield with a raised centre.
secund ensidig One-sided, when parts or organs are all directed to the same side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).
seed frø The reproductive structure formed from a fertilized ovule.
self-compatible selvfertil, selvforenelig Self-fertile, able to self-fertilize.
self-fertilization selvbefrugtning Fertilization by pollen from the same individual; including both autogamy and geitonogamy.
self-incompatible selvsteril, selvuforenelig Self-sterile, not able to self-fertilize.
self-pollination selvbestøvning The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma in the same flower or to a flower on the same individual.
semi- halv- Half, somewhere in between, e. g., semierect, not quite upright.
sensu lato i bred betydning In the broad sense.
sensu stricto i snæver betydning In the narrow sense.
sepal bægerblad One of the segments of the outer whorl(s) of the perianth.
sepaloid bægerbladlignende Sepal-like.
septicidal skillevægsdelende Applied to a capsule opening along the edges of the carpels.
septifragous skillevægsbrydende Of the dehiscence of a fruit, when the valves or backs of the carpels break away from the septa.
septum skillevæg A wall or membrane between rooms of the same kind, e.g. in a capsule.
serial række-, seriel Arranged in a row; serial buds are axillary, each one adaxial to the next older bud.
sericeous silkehåret Silky, with a covering of appressed, soft, straight and glossy hairs.
serrate savtakket Toothed like a saw, with acute teeth pointing forward.
serrulate fint savtakket Minutely serrate.
sessile siddende Stalkless, or with no visible stalk; when applied to a stigma, indicates that the stigma is situated directly on the ovary.
seta børste A bristle or stiff hair.
setaceous børsteformet Bristle-like, but not necessarily rigid.
setose børste- Beset with bristles.
sheath skede A tubular organ, enveloping another organ; e.g. the basal part of Poaceae leaves, which encloses the stem.
shoot skud A young stem or branch.
short-shoot kortskud A shoot with very short internodes and of strictly limited growth, especially on trees and shrubs.
shrub busk A woody, perennial plant, many-stemmed or branching from the base, usually 1-4 m tall.
sigmoid S-formet Bent like the letter S.
silicula kortskulpe A short siliqua, less than three times as long as its width.
siliqua skulpe A dry, dehiscent fruit characteristic of the family Brassicaceae, formed from a superior ovary of two carpels (with two parietal placentas) joined margin to margin, and divided into two loculi by a membranous wall (false septum) between the placentas. In the strict sense a siliqua is at least three times as long as its width.
simple simpel, ugrenet Not compound; of a leaf, not divided into leaflets; of an inflorescence or a hair, without branching.
sinuate bugtet Of leaf margins, with deep, rounded incisions.
sinus indbugtning The rounded emargination between two lobes of an expanded organ such as a leaf or a petal; basal sinus, the sinus at the base of a leaf, on either side of the petiole, if present.
solitary enlig Borne singly.
sorus sporehushob A discrete group of sporangia, in ferns.
spadix kolbe A spike-like inflorescence with a thickened and often succulent axis.
spathe hylsterblad A large bract surrounding an inflorescence (Araceae, Lemnaceae, Hydrocharitaceae).
spathulate spatelformet Paddle- or spoon-shaped; obovate with an extended basal part.
species art
spermatophyte frøplante A plant reproducing by seeds, i.e. Coniferopsida and Magnoliopsida.
spheroid kugleformet Globose with somewhat compressed or flattened poles.
spike aks A simple, elongated, erect racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
spikelet småaks The ultimate flower cluster of grasses, consisting of one to many flowers subtended by two bracts (glumes).
spine torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, usually not greatly widened at base, formed by modification of a plant organ, e.g. a shoot, leaf or part of a leaf, as in Berberis.
spinose tornet With spines.
spinule lille torn A small spine.
spinulose småtornet With small spines.
sporangium sporehus A body producing spores.
spore spore A simple unit of dispersal, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells; produced on the sporophyte and developing into the gametophyte.
sporophyll sporofyl A specialised leaf that bears one or more sporangia, sometimes scale-like or in some other way modified.
sporophyte sporofyt The diploid generation of a plant that bears the sporangia (ovules and pollen-sacs in Magnoliopsida); the main plant body of all vascular plants.
spur spore A tapering projection; in flowers, a tubular pouch-like outgrowth of any part of a flower, often containing nectar; a short-shoot of the stem, bearing leaves and/or flowers and fruit.
stalk stilk Any narrow basal part of an organ.
stamen støvblad, støvdrager, støvbærer The male reproductive organ of a flowering plant, producing pollen.
staminode staminodium A sterile stamen, often rudimentary; sometimes modified to perform some other function, e.g. that of a petal or nectary.
standard fane The large upper (posterior) petal of a flower in the Fabaceae.
stellate stjerneformet Star-shaped, with radiating arms; usually applied to hairs or flowers.
stem stængel (stamme) The central, supporting axis of a plant, bearing leaves and flowers.
stem-clasping stængelomfattende Of a leaf base, clasping the stem.
sterile steril Barren, not functional; used of sexual parts, such as anthers, or of plants not able to set seed.
stigma støvfang The apical part of the pistil, that is receptive to pollen. It may be simple, capitate, cleft or branched in various ways.
A stalk supporting a structure, as the stalk attaching the ovary to the receptacle in some flowers.
stipel fodflig, akselblad A scale-like, stipule-like appendage at the base of leaflets.
stipitate stilket Stalked, borne on a stipe.
stipulate med fodflige/akselblade With stipules.
stipule fodflig, akselblad Scale-like or leaf-like appendage at the base of a leaf, usually paired.
stolon overjordisk udløber A lateral, aerial shoot with elongated internodes, rooting at the nodes and giving rise to new individuals when the internodes perish, as in Fragaria.
stoloniferous med udløbere Bearing stolons.
stoma spalteåbning A pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, through which gases are exchanged.
stomatiferous med spalteåbninger With stomata.
Growing irregularly with abrupt bends.
stria vedlister In Salix, short ridges on the wood, appearing when the bark is peeled off.
striate stribet Marked with parallel, fine, longitudinal streaks or grooves.
A surface sculpture consisting of parallel longitudinal grooves.
strigose striglehåret Covered with stiff hairs, which are slanting rather than erect.
strigulose kort striglehåret With short, stiff hairs.
A hard outgrowth of the seed coat, near the hilum.
stylar part næb In Brassicaceae, the sterile, indehiscent, distal segment of the fruit plus style.
style griffel The often narrow part of the pistil between the stigma and the ovary; not always present.
stylopodium stylopodium, griffelfod A swelling on the top of the ovary (Apiaceae).
sub- næsten Meaning almost, not completely.
submerged submers, nedsænket Growing under water.
subshrub halvbusk A perennial with a short woody surface stem producing aerial herbceous stems.
subtend støtte To bear or keep up, to have another organ in its axil.
subulate sylformet Awl-shaped; narrow and tapering evenly from a narrow base to a fine point.
succulent sukkulent, kødet Fleshy and juicy.
sucker rodskud An aerial shoot arising from the roots or rhizomes of a tree or shrub, as in Populus tremula; may develop a root system and form a new plant individual.
suffruticose halvbusk- Having the characteristics of a subshrub.
sulcate furet Furrowed, with long narrow tracks.
superior oversædig Of an ovary, when the sepals, petals and stamens are inserted below the ovary (a hypogynous flower) or when the receptacle bearing the calyx, corolla and stamens is prolonged so as to be separate from the ovary, but forms a cup surrounding it (a perigynous flower).
suture søm The line where two carpels or other organs join to each other, often splitting open in later development.
sympatric sympatrisk Of two or more taxa, occupying more or less the same area.
sympetalous helkronet With the petals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
sympodial sympodial Without a single, persistent growing point (the longitudinal growth is taken over by a lateral growing point below the apex).
syncarpous synkarp Of a gynoecium, with two or more carpels, all fused together, e.g. capsule.
synsepalous med sambladet bæger With the sepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntepalous med sambladet "krone" With the tepals joined to each other, at least for part of their length.
syntype syntype One of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name to which no holotype was designated.
taproot pælerod A main descending root bearing lateral roots, as in many dicotyledons.
taxon taxon, takson A group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals.
tendril slyngtråd A slender, spirally coiled, branched or unbranched climbing-organ originating from a stem or a leaf.
tepal blosterblad One of the segments (when not fused) of the perianth; used when the perianth is not differented in calyx (with sepals) and corolla (with petals).
teratologic misdannet, monstrøs With abnormal growth, mis-shapen.
terete trind Circular in cross-section.
terminal endestillet At the apex or distal end. When a flower or a bud is terminal on an axis they end its growth.
ternate trekoblet, trefingret A compound leaf with three leaflets, which are inserted at the same point. Synonymous with trifoliolate.
testa frøskal The seed coat, mainly formed by the integuments.
tetrad tetrade A group of four spores or pollen grains cohering, usually in a pyramid, and originating from a single spore mother cell.
Having four parts.
tetraploid tetraploid Having 4 basic sets of chromosomes.
thallus thallus A plant body which is not obviously differentiated into stem, root, and leaves.
theca støvknapshalvdel The anther usually consists of two thecae joined by the connective; each theca usually contains two pollen sacs.
therophyte therofyt, enårig An annual plant that survives unfavourable conditions by seeds.
thorn torn A woody sharp-pointed structure, formed from a modified shoot. Synonymous with spine.
throat svælg The opening where the tube meets the limb in a sympetalous corolla (or a syntepalous calyx).
thyrse dusk An inflorescence with no terminal flower on the main axis, but with a terminal flower on each lateral partial inflorescence.
Of an inflorescence, with dichasial or monochasial partial inflorecences.
A lateral, more or less erect shoot borne at the base of the stem at ground level.
tomentose filthåret Covered with short hairs matted into a felt.
torulose knudret Cylindrical with contractions or swellings at intervals.
triangular trekantet (triangulær) Of flat organ having the outline of a triangle, or of a solid body triangular in cross section.
trichome trikom An outgrowth from the epidermis. Variable in size and complexity; includes hairs, scales, and non-immersed glands.
Having three sharp points at the apex.
trifid tredelt Three-cleft.
trifoliate trebladet Having three leaves.
trifoliolate trekoblet Of a compound leaf with three leaflets inserted at the same point. Synonymous with ternate.
trigonous trekantet A body triangular in section with rounded edges.
Applied to a spore with a three-armed scar marking the point of attachment in the tetrad.
trimorphic trimorf With three different forms.
triquetrous trekantet A body triangular in section with sharp edges.
trullate murskeformet Trowel-shaped; a flat shape widest nearer the base and more or less angled (not rounded) there, 1.2-3x as long as wide.
truncate afskåret Ending very abruptly as if cut straight across (of tips as well as bases).
trunk (træ)stamme The single, central stem of a tree.
tube rør A hollow cylindrical structure, usually referring to fused parts of a calyx or a corolla.
tuber knold A storage organ formed by swelling of underground stems or stem tips, or the distal end of a root.
tubercle lille vorte A small blunt outgrowth.
tuberculate med små vorter With small, smooth, blunt projections.
tuberous knold- Tuber-like.
tubular rørformet Hollow and almost cylindrical.
tuft tue A dense cluster of shoots or leaves from ground level.
tufted tueformet With shoots or leaves clustered together at ground level.
tunic løgskal, tunika The dry, papery covering of a bulb or corm.
Top-shaped; obconical with a contraction towards the point.
turgid opsvulmet Swollen.
turion turion A detachable bud by which some water-plants perennate at the bottom of a pond. Also a short scaly shoot produced from a rhizome, or a new sprouting shoot in Rubus.
twig kvist A small, ultimate branch of a tree or shrub.
twiner slyngplante A plant with stems which are twisting round some other body.
twining slyngende Coiling or spiralling around a support (usually another stem) for climbing.
umbel skærm An umbrella-shaped, racemose inflorescence, with the pedicels arising more or less from a common point.
umbo navle Boss; a small, rounded elevation positioned at the centre.
umbonate navle- With a small, rounded elevation at the centre.
unarmed tornløs Entirely without thorns, spines, prickles or stinging hairs.
undulate bølget Wavy, i.e. not flat, with the surface rising and falling like sea-waves.
unguiculate klo-, med negl With the base contracted into a claw.
uni- en- One-.
unilocular enrummet Hollow, with one room.
unisexual enkønnet A plant or a flower bearing only one sex.
urceolate krukkeformet Urn-shaped, rounded, hollow and strongly contracted at the mouth.
utricle frugthylster A small bladder; a bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit, e.g. in Carex.
valvar part
In the Brassicaceae, the proximal part of the fruit, containing seeds.
valvate klaplagt Of floral parts in the bud, parts touching but not overlapping; also applied to organs dehiscing with valves.
valve klap A lobe of an opened capsule (if the capsule apex is only shallowly divided the term tooth is applied instead).
variant variant (type, form) Used to designate any infraspecific entity, whether taxonomically recognized or not.
variegated broget Having a patchy variation in colour or shade.
vascular plant karplante A plant with vascular bundles; pteridophytes and spermatophytes are the two groups constituuting the vascular plants.
wedge-shaped kileformet Inversely triangular in shape, with straight sides converging towards the base.
vegetative vegetativ The non-floral parts of a plant; non-flowering.
vegetative dispersal vegetativ spredning The dispersal of a plant by means of more or less specialized organs other than seeds.
vegetative reproduction vegetativ formering A form of reproduction where other parts of a plant than the seed become detached and give rise to new individuals, genetically identical with the parent. These parts may be more or less specialized.
vein nerve, streng A strand of conducting and often strengthening tissue.
velutinous fløjlshåret Velvety: densely covered with soft, short, erect hairs.
venation nervation The pattern formed by the veins.
vernation knopleje The spatial arrangement of young leaves in the bud.
verrucose vortet Covered with rough, wart-like projections.
versatile bevægelig When applied to anthers, attached by the middle so as capable of movement.
verticillate kransstillet Whorled, several similar organs at the same point of an axis.
vesicular blæreformet Bladderlike.
vesiculose med blærer Covered with blisters or small bladders.
vestigial rudimentær Rudimentary, appearing as a remain or a trace from an organ which was well developed in an ancestor.
whorl krans An arrangement with more than two organs of the same kind at the same point of an axis.
vicariance vikarians The occurrence of two or more closely related taxa in different areas; often held to be a result of the splitting up of the past distribution by geological or climatic events.
villous lodden, lådden Covered with long, weak hairs.
wing vinge One of the lateral petals in some types of zygomorphic flowers (cf. standard, keel), or a projection running along the stem, or a thin appendage to a seed or fruit.
violet violet A purplish-blue colour.
viscid klæbrig Coated with a thick, sticky secretion.
viscidium klæbelegeme, klæbeskive In orchids; a sticky structure of the pollinium (at base of stalk if present), serving to attach the pollinia to an insect or other pollination vector.
viviparous vivipar, levendefødende With seeds or fruits which germinate before being shed from the parent plant.
woody træagtig Having the texture of wood.
Applied to a plant with fertilization between gametes originating from different individuals.
Pollination between flowers of separate plants.
xerophyte tørkeplante A plant adapted to survive dry conditions.
zigzag zigzag With short, sharp turns from side to side.
zygomorphic zygomorf, énsymmetrisk With only one plane of symmetry, as the flowers in Fabaceae, Lamiaceae etc.