Taxa treated:
Bryonia alba
B. dioica
Citrullus colocynthis
C. lanatus
Cucumis melo
C. metuliferus
C. myriocarpus
C. sativus
Cucurbita maxima
C. moschata
C. pepo
Cyclanthera brachystachya
Ecballium elaterium
Echinocystis lobata
Lagenaria siceraria
Sicyos angulatus
Thladiantha dubia
References
Key
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Cucurbitaceae Taxa treated:
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 © Flora Nordica

by Thomas Karlsson
(6b, 20071113/090907)

Comments and questions

This treatment is partly outdated - the final version is available in print.
A largely tropical to subtropical family of usually herbaceous climbers with spirally arranged, exstipulate, roughly hairy, palmately veined leaves. Tendrils are lateral at the axils (a good character for vegetative material; in Passifloraceae they are truly axillary, in Vitaceae leaf-opposed). The flowers are sympetalous and usually unisexual. In monoecious taxa the male flowers are often produced before the female ones, i.e. on more proximal parts of the shoots. Many taxa have single axillary female flowers and male flowers in lateral inflorescences at the same nodes, but several other arrangements exist. The stamens frequently form three groups or even a central column; the anthers are usually sigmoidally coiled. The female flowers are epigynous and usually have staminodia. The fruit is typically a berry but can attain huge dimensions; its outer wall is often thick and rigid.
The length of leaf-blades is measured from the insertion point of the petiole to the apex of the midlobe (basal lobes, if present, are not included).
1 Leaf-blades divided to near the midrib, the lobes again divided; shoot apices woolly
- Different (leaf-blades less divided or shoot apices not woolly)
2
 
2 Leaf-blades with 1-2 cup-shaped glands on either side of the petiole
- Leaf-blades without cup-shaped glands
3
 
3 Lower surface of leaves greyish from closely set, stiff hairs; tendrils absent
- Lower surface of leaves not greyish by closely set hairs; tendrils usually present
4
 
4 Leaves broadly cordate with smoothly rounded sides and acuminate apex
- Different (leaves more or less lobed or angular; if the sides are evenly rounded, the apex is rounded, too)
5
 
5 Tendrils unbranched
6
- At least some tendrils with at least one branch
7
 
6 Tendrils glabrous
- Tendrils scabrid or hairy in the basal part
 
7 Huge, procumbent or climbing herbs with a thick stem (1.5-4 cm diam.); corolla at least 8 cm
- Climbers of moderate size, with thin stem; corolla to 1.1 cm
8
 
8 Petioles and young stems with long, multicellular glandular hairs
5. Sicyos
- Petioles and stems glabrous or with short eglandular hairs
9
 
9 Leaf-blades palmately divided to the middle; sepals and corolla lobes 6
- Leaf-blades pentagonal or shallowly palmately divided; sepals and corolla lobes 5

1. Thladiantha Bunge       To top

Bunge, Enum. pl. China bor.: 29 (1833).
Thladiantha dubia Bunge 1833. D . F kiinankurkku. Fa . I . N . S berggurka. - Dioecious perennial, with widely creeping, tuber-bearing roots. Stems climbing; tendrils unbranched or with a single branch. Leaf-blades 6-12 cm, dark green, broadly cordate with smoothly rounded sides and acuminate apex, basal lobes often converging; margin closely and evenly denticulate; upper surface slightly scabrid, with sunken veins, lower surface (like stem, petioles, calyx and fruits) densely villous. Female flowers single, axillary. Male flowers a few together on short, leafy, axillary shoots. Sepals broadly linear, soon reflexed. Corolla 2-3 cm, deep yellow, campanulate, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 5, free. Fruit oblong, 4-5 × 2 cm, red. - [2n=18]
Grown for its beautiful foliage and dark red fruits; occasionally found as an escape. – D Sjæ Næstved 1933. N Ak Oslo 1915. S Sk Skanör 1958, BhG Marstrand (Lindström 1920), Vg Skövde 1909, Upl Uppsala two localities 1937–39, 1963. – Also recorded from F (Kurtto & Lahti 1987), but specimens seen from V Dragsfjärd belong to Bryonia alba. – NE China; Korea. - Map (not in the book).

2. Ecballium A. Rich., nom. cons.       To top

A. Rich. in Bory de Saint-Vincent, Dict. class. hist. nat. 6: 19 (1824).
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. 1824. D Æselagurk. F ruiskukurkku. Fa . I . N springagurk. S sprutgurka. – Monoecious (rarely dioecoius) perennial with a thick taproot. Stems procumbent to ascending, richly branched, hirsute; tendrils absent. Leaf-blades 7–14(–20) cm, triangular, fleshy; base with a deep, U-shaped, angular sinus; apex obtuse; margin deeply crenulate and ± undulate; upper surface greyish green and sparsely hairy, lower surface densely covered with short hairs (appearing greyish) and with bristles along the veins. Female flowers solitary, axillary. Male flowers in bracteate racemes from the same axil as, but lateral to, the female flower. Sepals 5, narrowly lanceolate. Corolla 1.5–1.8 cm, yellow (paler and with greenish veins outside), widely campanulate, deeply 5-lobed; corolla lobes in male flowers oblanceolate and apiculate, in female ones triangular and acute. Stamens 3, free. Fruit oblong, densely hispid, 4–5 × 1.5–2.5 cm, greenish yellow, nodding; the seeds lie in an aqueous fluid and are forcibly ejected through the pit formed when the fruit is shed from the pedicel. – [2n=18]
Casual, most often in docks and loading places. – D LFM Nakskov 1926, Nykøbing 1949, Brn Bådsted 1999 (new road embankment). S Vg Västra Tunhem 1958 (with manganese ore from Turkey). – Also reported from Sk Malmö 1995 but no voucher has been found. F V Turku 1956 (filling soil). – Macaronesia, the Mediterranean, SW Asia; as an established alien north to southern England. - Map (not in the book).

3. Bryonia L.   Ill. leaves    Ill. flowers

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 657 (1753).
Literature. Jeffrey 1979.
Geophytes. Monoecious or dioecious perennials with large, tuberous, usually branched root. Stems climbing; tendrils long, unbranched, glabrous. Leaf-blades palmately lobed about half-way to the midvein.
Flowers in long-pedicellate, usually ebracteate axillary racemes (male ones) or corymbs (female ones); female flowers smaller than male ones. Sepals 5, narrowly triangular. Corolla almost rotate, greenish yellow to whitish yellow with greenish veins, deeply 5-lobed. Stamens 3, free, two with 2 thecae, one with 1; thecae convoluted; connective not prolonged beyond the thecae. Staminodes normally present, usually 5. Ovary globose; stigmas 3. Fruit a globose berry. Seeds ovate in outline, flattened, slightly rugose.
Chromosome base-number x=10.
Biology. The flowers are nectariferous and are visited by a wide spectrum of pollinators. These do not discriminate between male and female flowers despite their difference in size and appearance.
The berries are evidently spread by birds.

1 Apical lobe of leaves with (2-)3-5 pairs of acute teeth; female flowers with petal lobes only slightly longer than the sepals; male flowers with ovate to triangular and almost subacute corolla lobes; mature berries black
- Apical lobe of leaves entire or with 1(-2) pairs of obtuse teeth; female flowers with petals c. twice as long as the sepals; male flowers with broadly lingulate and broadly obtuse corolla lobes; mature berries red

1. Bryonia alba L.   Map    Ill. leaves    Ill. flowers       To top

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1012 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 1153.1 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Jeffrey, Kew Bulletin 23: 455 (1979).
D Enbo Galdebær. F mustakoiranköynnös. Fa . I . N svartgallbær. S hundrova.
Monoecious. Root with a tuberculate surface. Stems to 4 m, 1.2–3.2 mm diam., when young finely downy but soon glabrous or more rarely with single multicellular hairs. Petioles 1.4–5(–7.5) cm, hairy or glabrous. Leaf-blades palmately 5- or 7-lobed with deeply emarginate base, 4.8–9.5(–12.7) × 5.3­–11(–15.5) cm, scabrid on both surfaces; midlobe triangular, 3.7–7.9 × 1.6–5.7 cm, comprising 54–82% the length of the leaf, acute to acuminate, with (2–)3–5 pairs of acute teeth; lateral lobes acute.
Male inflorescences in lower axils, when fully developed 9.5–24 cm, with (7–)11–20 flowers; middle pedicels 8–24 mm. Female inflorescences in upper axils, in fruit (2.5–)3.5–15 cm, with 3–7 (most often 5) flowers; middle pedicels 4–10(–18) mm. Inflorescence axes and receptacles in both sexes fairly densely covered with very minute, white, opaque, finely crispate hairs. Male flowers with receptacle 3.9–5.5 × 4.7-6.6 mm, fairly narrowly campanulate (0.7-0.9 times as long as wide); sepals (2.7-)3.1-5.1 mm; corolla yellowish, inside and outside glandular-hairy, with ovate to triangular, obtuse to subacute lobes 4.3-7.4 × (2.5-)2.7-4.1 mm, 1.3-1.8(-2.3) times as long as wide, 1-1.9 times as long as the sepals; filaments 1.1-2 mm, with fairly sparse 0.2-0.4 mm long hairs; anthers 3.8-4.6 mm. Female flowers with receptacle 0.4-1.4 × 1.5-3 mm, 0.2-0.5(-0.7) times as long as wide; sepals 2.2-4 mm, revolute or at least bent out from the petals; corolla yellowish, glandular-hairy along the margin and (sparsely) inside, with linear or very narrowly elliptic lobes 3.1-4.7(-5.5) × 0.8-1.6 mm, 2.5-4.5(-5.5) times as long as wide, 0.8-1.5(-1.8) times as long as the sepals; staminodes (3-)5, 0.2-0.8 mm, glabrous; styles connate in the lower 1/5 to 1/2; stigmas not papillose. Fruit at first dark green, when mature greenish black, 7-9 mm. Seeds 4.5-5.7 × 3.2-4.3 mm, pale brown. - Mid-summer to late summer.
[2n=20]
Habitat. Not indigenous but cultivated since Medieval times, at first as a medicinal plant (purgative) but later on mainly as an ornamental. Nowadays rarely grown but sometimes seen as a garden relic or, more often, established in thickets, hedges, shrubby roadsides and grazed, not too shady woodland, mainly on nutrient-rich mineral soil.
Distribution. Nem–BNem[–SBor]. – D at least partly archaeophytic; scattered on the islands; NJy at least Hjørring 1961–68, ØJy scattered, especially in the southeast, VJy Fanø, Harritslev, Herning and Skjern, SJy at least Haderslev 1947. N fairly rare, but partly established, in the southeastern lowlands from northwestern Øf (Fredriksdal, Sarpsborg, Moss, Rygge and Våler) and VA Kristiansand (latest 1960) north to Bu Ringerike 1971 and He Hamar 1984; rare and casual along the western coast in Ro Karmøy 1929, SF Sogndal 1994, MR Molde 1974 and Stranda 1936, and ST Trondheim 1938. S known since 1662 (Sk Helsingborg) but probably not very common in cultivation until the 19th century; as an established escape fairly common and probably increasing in Sk, more scattered north to BhG, Vg, southernmost Vsm and Srm (but rare and unstable in the south Swedish uplands); further north casual: Upl c. 30 localities but few new records, Dlr Falun 1856, 1890, Hedemora 1939, Söderbärke 1946, Gst Hamrånge 1897, Gävle 1945, Hls Bjuråker 1867, Ång Härnön 1903. F mainly casual: A Jomala 1998, Mariehamn 1911, 1922, Lemland 1912, Eckerö several records 1898–1954; V known from c. 10 municipalities, established in Uusikaupunki (3 places) and Vihti (garden, known since 1910), U Espoo 1977, Helsinki several records 1868 up to present, Loviisa 1907, Siuntio 1906, Tammisaari 1932, 1986, EK at least Hamina 1906, 1959, St Pori 1915, EH at least Lempäälä 1981, Tampere 1933, 1978, 1981, Valkeakoski 1909, 1960, ES Lappeenranta 1900, Kouvola 1966.
Probably native to SE Europe and Turkey; disjunct in Kazakhstan and Kirgizstan. Widespread in Europe as an escape from cultivation.

Similar species. Bryonia alba is often confused with B. dioica (2) when fruits are not present. B. alba produces first male inflorescences; they are almost gone when the same plant starts to produce female flowers. Unexperienced collectors frequently interpret shoots of B. alba in the male or female phase as shoots of the dioecious species. – In most cases the species are possible to determine already on leaf shape. The most common leaf shape of B. alba is given in Fig. X D, that of B. dioica in Fig. X B; other examples in the figure are fairly rare extreme variants. In cases where leaf shape is not conclusive, several floral characters are helpful, e.g. those in the key. The best, non-overlapping diagnostic characters of B. alba and B. dioica are microscopic: opaque versus translucent hairs on the inflorescence axes, smooth versus papillose stigmas, short versus long hairs on the filaments, and glabrous versus hairy staminodia.

2. Bryonia dioica Jacq.   Map    Ill. leaves    Ill. flowers       To top

Jacquin, Fl. Austr. 2: 59, t. 199 (1774). – B. cretica L. subsp. dioica (Jacq.) Tutin (1968). – Type: Austria, leg. Jacquin (W) lectotype, sel. by Jeffrey, Kew Bulletin 23: 444 (1979).

D Tvebo Galdebær. F punakoiranköynnös. Fa . I . N rødgallbær. S röd hundrova.
Dioecious. Root with a smooth surface. Stems to 4 m, 1.2–3.2 mm diam., when young finely downy but soon glabrous except for scattered multicellular hairs. Petioles 1.2–5 cm. Leaf-blades palmately 3- or 5- (rarely 7-)lobed with deeply emarginate base, 5.2–9.3(–11.5) ´ 5.1–9.5(–16.2) cm, scabrid on both surfaces; midlobe oblong to narrowly oblong (rarely triangular), 3.8–7(–11) × 1.5–3.2(–9.7) cm, 63–85(–92)% the length of the leaf, acuminate to cuspidate, entire or with 1–2 pairs of obtuse teeth; lateral lobes obtuse or sometimes acute.
Male inflorescences when fully developed 4–12(–20) cm, with 5–15 flowers; middle pedicels 7–14(–32) mm. Female inflorescences in fruit 1–3.2(–5.8) cm, with 2–6 (most often 3) flowers; middle pedicels 3–10(–17) mm. Inflorescence axes and receptacles in both sexes fairly densely covered with very minute, reddish, translucent, glandular hairs. Male flowers with receptacle 3.1–3.9(–4.7) × (4.1–)4.4–6.6 mm, fairly widely campanulate (0.6–0.8 times as long as wide); sepals 1.2–2.5(–3.1) mm; corolla whitish, inside and outside glandular-hairy, with oblong, broadly obtuse lobes 5.3–7.9 × (3.1–)3.5–5.8 mm, 1.2–2.1 times as long as wide, (1.8–)2.1–5.3 times as long as the sepals; filaments 1.2–1.8 mm, with dense 0.5–0.9 mm long hairs; anthers (1.8–)2.1–3.1 mm. Female flowers with receptacle 0.5–1.2(–2) × (1.3–)1.5–3.7 mm, 0.3–0.6(–0.8) times as long as wide; sepals 1.3–2(–2.3) mm, appressed to the corolla or sometimes revolute; corolla whitish, inside and outside glandular-hairy, with lingulate to narrowly triangular lobes (2.7–)3.1–4.7(–5.5) × (0.9–)1.3–2.1(–2.5) mm, 1.7–3.1(–3.5) times as long as wide, (1.6–)1.8–3.8 times as long as the sepals; staminodes usually 5, 0.3–1.1 mm, densely hairy from 0.4–0.7 mm long hairs; styles usually connate up to the stigmas but sometimes only in the lower 1/3 or 1/2; stigmas distinctly papillose. Fruit at first dark green, when mature red, 8.5–10.5 mm. Seeds 4–4.8 × 2.9–3.8 mm, yellowish. – Mid-summer to late summer.
[2n=20]
Distribution. Nem–BNem. – D resident but fairly rare: NJy Hadsund, Ålborg and Østerstrand, ØJy c. 7 localities, widespread in Kolding, VJy 5 localities, SJy c. 8 localities, FyL Humble and Sanderum, Sjæ several localities, LFM Nakskov, Magleboende and Nykøbing. N casual: Ak Frogn 1934 (ravine), ST Trondheim 1945 (and some years before; garden weed). S Sk fairly common and apparently increasing; resident, but rare, also in Bl and southern Klm; further north casual, with usually few records from each province, to BhG, Vg and Upl (however, locally resident in Srm Stockholm area). F A Saltvik 1924–25 (roadside), V Nauvo 1905 (roadside), U Siuntio 1962 (stone-wall), EH Hattula 1980 (plant nursery, with Danish Cotoneaster seed). – Also reported from D Brn (Hansen 1951, Hansen 1991), but no specimens have been seen; a report from N Ak Oslo (Lid & Lid 2005) was based on misdetermined B. alba.
Probably native in SW Europe (east to Bulgaria) and N Africa; widespread in western and central Europe as an escape from cultivation.

Habitat. Just as Bryonia alba (1) not indigenous but cultivated since the Medieval as a purgative and for ornament. In our time rarely planted; sometimes seen as a relic of cultivation but more often in thickets, hedges, stone fences, industrial ground and tips, usually on nutrient-rich mineral soil. – Still more demanding for a warm climate than B. alba.

Taxonomy. In Flora europaea (Tutin et al. 1968), Bryonia dioica was regarded as a subspecies of the eastern Mediterranean B. cretica L., which differs from B. dioica in having an eglandular male inflorescence and immature berries variegated white. However, according to Jeffrey (1979), who revised the genus on a worldwide basis, the herbarium evidence does not justify merging the two species into one.

Similar species. Bryonia dioica is often confused with B. alba (1), see that species.

4. Echinocystis Torr. & A. Gray, nom. cons.       To top

Torrey & Gray, Flora N. Am. 1(3): 542 (1840).
Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray 1840. D . F piikkikurkku. Fa . I . N . S taggreva. – Monoecious annual. Stems climbing, glabrous; tendrils with 0–4 branches. Leaf-blades 6–12 cm, palmately divided to the middle into 3–5 rather narrowly triangular, acuminate to aristate lobes, glabrous or slightly scabrid along the margin and on the veins beneath; base with a shallow U-shaped sinus; margin with small, distant teeth. Female flowers solitary, axillary, pendent. Male flowers in compound, elongate racemes from the same axil as, but lateral to, the female flower. Sepals 6, filiform, much shorter than the petals. Corolla 0.8–1.1 cm, yellowish white, almost star-shaped, deeply 6-lobed with linear lobes, densely covered with glandular hairs. Stamens connate to a central column. Fruit ovoid, c. 3 × 2 cm, with numerous, 6–8 mm long, patent, smooth acicles but otherwise glabrous, opening from the top. – [2n=32]
Cultivated for ornament; occasionally found as an escape. – D FyL Davinde 1928. N Vf Larvik 1996. S BhG Angered 2003 (filling soil), Lundby 2004. F U Vantaa 1983 (garden weed). – North America; naturalized in eastern C Europe. - Map (not in the book).

5. Sicyos L.       To top

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1013 (1753).
Sicyos angulatus L. 1753. D . F siankurkku. Fa . I . N møllegresskar. S hårgurka. – Monoecious annual. Stems climbing, like the petioles, tendrils and inflorescence axes with numerous long glandular hairs; tendrils with 2–5 branches. Leaf-blades 6–15 cm, pentagonal or shallowly palmately divided into 5 broadly triangular lobes, thin, sparsely strigose on both surfaces and with longer hairs on the main veins beneath; base with a deep U-shaped sinus; apex acuminate; margin with small, distant teeth. Female flowers in axillary, pedunculate heads. Male flowers in compound, elongate racemes from the same axil as, but lateral to, the female flower. Sepals 5, narrowly lanceolate, much shorter than the petals. Corolla 0.5–0.8 cm, greenish white, almost rotate, 5-lobed with broadly triangular lobes. Stamens connate to a central column. Fruit (not seen in Nordic material) ovoid, 1.2–1.5 × 0.7–0.8 cm, densely covered with 5–6 mm long, forward-pointing, barbed acicles and long glandular hairs, one-seeded, remaining closed. – [2n=24]
Casual, in N and F U brought in with soybean. Also cultivated for ornament, but not known as an escape in Norden. – N Øf Fredrikstad 1972, 1973, 1977, Vf Larvik 1972, 1974, 1978. F V Naantali 1981, Turku 1987, U Helsinki 1974, 1981. – E North America; naturalized in southeastern C Europe. - Map (not in the book).

6. Cyclanthera Schrad.       To top

Schrader, Index Sem. Hort. Acad. Goett. 1831: 2 (1831).
Cyclanthera brachystachya (Ser.) Cogn. 1878 (C. explodens Naudin 1859). D . F . Fa . I . N . S springgurka. – Monoecious annual. Stems climbing, glabrous or with sparse, short hairs; tendrils with 1 branch. Leaf-blades 4–6 cm, pentagonal or shallowly palmately divided into 5 broadly triangular lobes, thin; base with a deep, U-shaped, angular sinus; apex acuminate; margin with small, distant teeth; upper surface slightly scabrid, lower surface puberulent along the veins. Female flowers solitary, axillary. Male flowers in short racemes from the same axil as, but lateral to, the female flower. Sepals 5, tooth-like. Corolla 0.1–0.3 cm, greenish yellow, rotate, 5-lobed with broadly triangular lobes. Stamens connate to a central column. Fruit with one convex and one concave side, green, 1.5–4 × 1–1.5 cm, on the convex side covered with c. 10 mm long, patent, slender spines, at maturity bursting, turning inside out, thereby forcibly ejecting the seeds. – [2n=32]
Sometimes cultivated as a curiosity; once inadvertently brought in, probably with garden material: S Sk Lund 1925 (garden weed). – Tropical America from Mexico to Colombia and Ecuador. – Map (not in the book).

7. Cucumis L.       To top

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1011 (1753).
Literature.Kirkbride 1993.
Annuals; usually monoecious. Stems procumbent to climbing; tendrils unbranched, hairy at least in the basal part. Leaf-blades in outline ovate to orbicular with cordate base, entire or palmately 3–5-lobed (at most halfway to the midvein).
Flowers axillary. Receptacle campanulate. Sepals 5, linear or very narrowly oblong. Corolla funnel-shaped, deeply 5-lobed; lobes ovate to obovate. Stamens 3, free, two with 2 thecae, one with 1; thecae convoluted; connective prolonged, visible beyond the thecae. Staminodes (in female flowers) 3, filiform. Style short; stigmas 3, reniform. Fruit thick-walled, indehiscent.
Chromosome base-numbers x=7, 12; polyploidy.

1 Leaf-blades undivided or with obtuse, rounded lobes; ovary woolly
- Leaf-blades palmately divided; lobes triangular with straight sides; ovary covered with spine-like warts

1. Cucumis melo L.   Map     Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1011 (1753). – Type: Cultivated in the Uppsala Botanical Garden, Linnaean Herbarium 1152.8 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Meeuse, Bothalia 8(1): 61 (1962).
D Melon. F meloni. Fa . I melóna. N melon. S melon.
Monoecious or andromonoecious annual. Stems to 2 m, procumbent to scrambling, 4–6(–8) mm diam., angular to sulcate, hispid. Petioles 4–11 cm, hairy like the stem. Leaf-blades in outline very broadly ovate to orbicular or reniform with deeply cordate base and broadly obtuse apex, undivided, angular or (rarely deeply) palmately 3–5-lobed, 6–15 ´ 6.5–15(–17) cm; lower surface with very dense, small, pointed projections and in addition with more scattered longer bristles (especially along the veins), upper surface with similar but less dense indumentum; margin dentate (often periodically so) or rarely almost entire; lobes (if present) very broadly ovate to crescent-shaped, with convex sides and obtuse apex.
Female flowers solitary in upper axils. Male flowers 2–7 together in lower axils, rarely on a very short common peduncle. Pedicels 2–18(–50) mm, densely hirsute. Hypanthium in male flowers campanulate, 4–7 mm, densely hirsute. Sepals linear, 4–7(–10) mm. Corolla pure yellow, hairy outside, (0.9–)1.1–2.1(–2.4) cm; lobes elliptic to ovate, obtuse or acute, mucronate. Ovary ellipsoid, densely woolly. Fruit 2–12(–60) ´ 2–5(–20) cm, globose to ellipsoid, smooth, with faint longitudinal ridges or reticulate, yellow or yellow-brown; pulp juicy, sweet and aromatic, usually orange. Seeds free in a central cavity, ovate to elliptic in outline, flat, 5–10 ´ 2.5–6 mm, white or pale yellowish brown. – Mid-summer to autumn.
[2n=24]
Distribution and habitat. Cultivated in the southern parts of Norden, mainly under glass, but most fruits in trade are imported. As an escape on tips, especially on sewage sludge, filling soil and garden composts. The species has probably occurred on most municipal tips since the 1990’s but is unevenly documented. – D ØJy Randers 2001, VJy Nørre Nebel 1995, Sjæ several records, the first one from 1858, all others later than 1968. N Øf Fredrikstad 1991, Moss 2003 (tips), Bu Ringerike 2004 (tip), Vf at least Sandefjord 2001 (sewage sludge). S c. 90 records north to BhG (the Göteborg area), Vsm S:t Ilian 2000 and Hls Bjuråker 1992, and from Nb, but only 14 earlier than 1990, the first one from Upl Järfälla 1916 (tip). F one or more records from most provinces north to OP, only the following pre-1990: U Helsinki 1934 (garden tip), EH Tampere (Hervanta 1970, Aitolahti 1982, 1985–86; tips).
Africa (except the northern parts), SW and S Asia, Malesia, Australia and islands in the Pacific; cultivated worldwide.
Variation. The fruits commonly for sale in Norden belong to either of two groups of cultivars, viz. musk melons (S nätmelon, e.g. ‘Galia’) and cantaloupe melons (S honungsmelon, e.g. ‘Ogen’). Musk melons are more or less globose, have yellowish-brown, strongly reticulate rind and orange, very aromatic flesh. Cantaloupes are ellipsoid with slightly pointed ends, have yellow, smooth rind with faint longitudinal furrows and pale yellow flesh.
Similar taxa. Cucumis melo is often misdetermined as C. sativus (2) but can in almost all instances be recognized on leaf shape (see the key). In critical cases the indumentum of the lower surface of the leaf-blades should be examined. In C. sativus all trichomes are of fairly uniform size and slender, whereas in C. melo there is a mixture of long, stiff hairs and very short, peg-like ones. – In leaf shape C. melo is more similar to species of Cucurbita or Lagenaria siceraria but has always unbranched tendrils. L. siceraria is distinct by having 1–2 cup-shaped glands on either side of the petiole and an indumentum of long, soft, multicellular hairs. In species of Cucurbita the leaf-blades are widest at the very base and the petioles have a mixture of stiff hairs and much smaller, thinner ones (sometimes also minute glandular hairs); the leaf-blades of the melon are widest at or slightly below the middle and the petioles have coarse, stiff hairs only.

.2. Cucumis sativus L.   Map     Ill.       To top

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1012 (1753). – Type: Burser Herbarium XVII:97 (UPS) lectotype, sel. by Pas et al., Taxon 34: 291 (1985).
D Almindelig Agurk. F kurkku. Fa . I agúrka. N agurk. S gurka.
Monoecious annual (sexual expression different in some cultivars). Stems to 2 m, procumbent to scrambling, 4.5–6 mm diam., angular to sulcate, hispid. Petioles 5–14 cm, hairy like the stem. Leaf-blades in outline very broadly ovate with deeply cordate base, palmately 5–7-lobed, 9–15(–19) × 9–16 cm, uniformly and evenly strigose on both surfaces; margin distinctly, usually periodically dentate; terminal lobe narrowly to broadly triangular, the lateral ones broadly triangular, all with fairly straight sides and acuminate apex.
Flowers in axillary clusters, 1–4 (female ones) or 2–8 (male ones) together (sometimes both sexes in the same axil), the female ones developing later. Pedicels 3–16 mm, densely hirsute. Hypanthium in male flowers campanulate, 6–9 mm, densely hirsute. Sepals linear or sometimes very narrowly oblong, 5–8(–10) mm. Corolla pure yellow, hairy outside, 1.4–3.2 cm; lobes elliptic to obovate, obtuse, mucronate. Ovary cylindric, covered with coarse, spine-like warts, each with a hyaline bristle at apex. Fruit 5–40(–50) × 3–5 cm, ellipsoid to cylindrical, often slightly curved, warty or at least uneven, green, sometimes with paler longitudinal stripes; pulp juicy, usually pale greenish. Seeds elliptic in outline, flat, 8–11 ×´3–5 mm, white. – Mid-summer to autumn.
[2n=14, 28]
Distribution and habitat. Frequently cultivated, both in gardens (north to S Vb) and on an industrial scale, but rare as an escape. The main reason for its rarity is probably that the fruits are harvested and consumed unripe. – D VJy Ikast 2003 (compost), Sjæ Amager 1974, København 1992 (sewage works). N Øf Fredrikstad (Onsøy 1961, tip). S Sk Helsingborg 1939 (tip), Bl Mörrum 1998, Ronneby 1998, 2000, Rödeby  1996, 2000 (all tips), BhG Backa 1955, Göteborg (Delsjöupplaget 1955, Sannegårdshamnen 1958), Rödbo 1926, Upl Ed 2003 (tip), Norrsunda 2000 (tip, on sewage sludge). F U Helsinki 1952 (filling soil), St Rauma 1926 (with garden waste), EH Hämeenlinna 1992, Tampere 1992 (tips), PH Jyväskylä. – There are also several records without vouchers, (e.g. from S Sk, Klm, SmI, BhG, Vg, Srm, Upl and Nb); most of them are probably based on C. melo with lobed leaves..
S Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand and southernmost China); cultivated worldwide.
Variation. Basically the cucumber is monoecious, but several cultivars are dioecious or have bisexual flowers; some have female flowers only and are parthenocarpic (set seedless fruit if they are not pollinated). Many cultivars can be classified into two main groups, viz. slicing cucumbers (S slanggurkor) and pickling cucumbers (S druvgurkor). Slicing cucumbers are 15–40(–50) cm long at harvest, with a length/width ratio of 4 or more and a fairly smooth surface. These cultivars are often purely female and parthenocarpic. In Norden they are usually grown in greenhouses and the fruits are mainly used for salad. Pickling cucumbers are 8–12 cm at harvest, with a length/width ratio of 2.8–3.2, and are often distinctly warty. They can be grown outdoors in the south; their fruits are mainly used for salting or pickling.
Similar taxa. Cucumis sativus is only rarely found outside gardens; examination of herbarium specimens frequently proves them to be misdetermined C. melo (1), see comments under C. melo.

Rare casuals       To top

Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naudin 1859. D Afrikaagurk. F kivakurkku, kiwano. Fa . I . N . S kiwano. – Stems procumbent or climbing, like the petioles with numerous patent bristles. Leaf-blades 6–10 cm, obtusely 5-angled or shallowly palmately divided into 3 or 5 obtuse lobes; base with a distinctly U-shaped sinus; margin distinctly and regularly dentate; both surfaces fairly densely strigose. Female flowers solitary, axillary. Male flowers single or a few clustered. Sepals c. 2 mm, linear. Corolla 0.8–1 cm, yellow, with elliptic lobes. Fruit [only immature ones in Nordic material] elliptic in outline, obtusely triangular in transect, 6–15 × 3–6 cm, red or yellow, spiny; spines stout, 7–13 mm, in early fruit development with a long, hyaline tip. Seeds ovate in outline, flattened, 6–8 mm, each enveloped by a green gelatinous cover. [2n=24]
Rubbish tips (germinated from food refuse or sewage sludge). S Sk Hörby 1999, Srm Eskilstuna 1999. F OP Oulu 1989. – Central and southern Africa, southwesternmost Asia (Yemen); grown for the fruit especially in New Zealand (since the 1970’s). - Map (not in the book).
Cucumis myriocarpus Naudin 1859. D . F . Fa . I . N . S krusbärsgurka. – Stems procumbent, with retrorse hairs. Petioles proximally with retrorse hairs, in the middle with patent ones and apiaclly with antrorse ones. Leaf-blades 3–6 cm, very broadly ovate in outline, palmately divided at least c. halfway to the midvein into 3 or 5 obtuse lobes; midlobe broadly elliptic, lateral ones asymmetrically rounded; base with a shallow, U-shaped sinus; margin distinctly and regularly dentate; upper surface glabrous or almost so, lower surface strongly scabrid. Female flowers solitary, axillary. Male flowers single or a few clustered, sometimes in the same axil as the female flower. Sepals 2–4 mm, linear. Corolla 0.3–0.5 cm, yellow, with elliptic lobes. Fruit [only immature ones in Nordic material] spherical or ellipsoid, 1.5–3 × 1.5–3.5 cm, orange, sometimes with yellow bands, spiny; spines c. 2.5 mm excluding the long, hyaline tip. [2n=24]
S Sk Lackalänga 1924, 1949 (wool alien), Klm Ljungby 2006 (tip). – Southern Africa. - Map (not in the book).

8. Citrullus Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh., nom. cons.       To top

Schrader ex Ecklon & Zeyher, Enum. pl. afric. austral. 2: 279 (1836).
Monoecious annuals or perennials. Stems procumbent to scrambling; most nodes with a ± falcate, stipule-like bract facing the tendril; tendrils usually with one branch. Leaf-blades in outline rounded triangular with cordate base, 3- or 5-palmatisect; sinuses evenly rounded; segments usually once or twice pinnatifid.
Flowers axillary, solitary. Receptacle broadly campanulate. Sepals 5, narrowly lanceolate. Corolla broadly campanulate, deeply 5-lobed; lobes ovate to oblong. Stamens 3, free, two with 2 thecae, one with 1; thecae convoluted. Staminodes (in female flowers) 3, filiform. Style short; stigmas 3, reniform. Fruit thick-walled, indehiscent; seeds embedded in the pulp.
Chromosome base-number x=11.

3 Stem in its entirety with long, patent, soft, multicellular hairs; fruit at least 17 cm diam., finally green (often variegated)
- Stem hispid or with moderately long, downwards directed, stiff hairs (soft multicellular hairs only at shoot apices); fruit to 8 cm diam., finally orange-yellow

1. Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai   Map       To top

Matsumura & Nakai, Cat. Sem. Spor. Horti Bot. Univ. Imp. Tokyo 30: no. 854 (1916). – Momordica lanata Thunb., Prodr. pl. cap.: 13 (1794). – Type: South Africa, Cape province, Promontorio Bona Spei Africes, leg. Thunberg (UPS) holotype.
Cucurbita citrullus L. (1753). - Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh. (1836). - Colocynthis citrullus (L.) O. Kuntze (1891). - Citrullus edulis Spach (1838).
D Vandmelon. F vesimeloni. Fa . I . N vassmelon. S vattenmelon.
Annual. Stems procumbent to scrambling, (2–)3–6 mm diam., villous throughout by numerous patent, soft, multicellular hairs (may be worn away on old parts) but without reflexed ones. Petioles 3–10(–13) cm, hairy like the stem. Leaf-blades (7–)10–17 × (5.5–)7–15 cm, lower surface moderately densely to densely hispid, upper one sparsely so and mainly along the major veins; margin slightly undulate, dentate or rarely almost entire, with an indistinct whitish border; ultimate lobes (8–)10–28(–35) mm wide, obovate, acute or obtuse (terminal lobe usually acuminate), often touching each other or even slightly overlapping.
Pedicels 10–65(–90) mm, villous. Sepals narrowly lanceolate, 4–6 mm. Corolla greenish yellow and hairy outside, pale yellow inside, 1.3–1.9 cm; lobes ovate to oblong, obtuse, mucronate. Ovary ± woolly; style 4–5 mm. Fruit 17–63 × 17–30(–43) cm, globose to ellipsoid, smooth, pale green to blackish, often variegated in different shades of green; pulp juicy, brittle, slightly sweet, usually red but sometimes yellow or white, finally liquifying. Seeds elliptic in outline, flat, 10 × 5 mm, white, brown, black or variegated. – Mid-summer to autumn.
[2n=22, 33]
Distribution and habitat. Rarely cultivated in Norden, but fruits are imported for consumtion on a large scale. The seeds frequently germinate on tips, especially on sewage sludge. The species has probably occurred on most municipal tips since the 1990’s but is unevenly documented. – D ØJy Glatved 1996, Randers 2001, Skanderborg 2003, Århus several records 1895–1997, VJy Esbjerg 1974, Nørre Nebel 1995, FyL Hudevad 2003, Sjæ Allerød 2004, Køge 1988, Pedersborg 1955, 1981, Roskilde 1971, several records in the København area 1895–1995. N Øf Fredrikstad 1992 (tip), Moss 2001, Ak Oslo 1933 (mill), Vf Borre 1997, Larvik 2002, 2004, Tønsberg, VA Kristiansand 1971 (flower pot). S up to 1988 only 4 records from BhG (first in Kungälv 1927); after 1988 found in single or several places in most provinces north to Gst, and in Nb – in striking contrast to C. colocynthis (2). F one or more records from most provinces north to OP, only the following pre-1990: V Turku 1955, 1966, U Helsinki several records c. 1901 and 1939–60, EH Iitti 1973, Nokia 1972 and Tampere 1969, 1980 and OP Oulu 1988. – Also given for F PS (Hämet-Ahti et al. 1998), but the source for this record could not be traced.
Grown for the fruit in all hot or warm-temperate parts of the world; origin probably in tropical and/or southern Africa.Grown for the fruit in all hot or warm-temperate parts of the world; origin probably in tropical and/or southern Africa.

2. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.   Map       To top

Schrader, Linnaea 12: 414 (1838). – Cucumis colocynthis L., Sp. pl.: 1011 (1753). – Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad. (1833). – Described from cultivated material.
D . F kolokvintti. Fa . I . N kolokvint. S kolokvint.
Perennial with thick, fleshy, sometimes branched taproot. Stems procumbent, rooting at nodes, 2–3 mm diam., hispid or hairy throughout by coarse, reflexed hairs; soft, patent, multicellular hairs at young shoot apices only. Petioles 4.5–7 cm, hairy like the stem. Leaf-blades 5–11 × 4.5–10 cm, lower surface very densely hispid, upper one less densely so and mainly along the major veins; margin strongly undulate, entire or with single shallow teeth, with a whitish border; ultimate lobes 5–12(–15) mm wide, obovate to lanceolate, broadly obtuse (terminal lobe often acute or apiculate), neither overlapping nor touching.
Pedicels 9–16 mm, villous. Sepals narrowly triangular, 2.5–5 mm. Corolla greenish yellow and hairy outside, pale yellow inside, 1–1.3 cm, with 5–7 wide veins; lobes broadly oblanceolate, mucronate. Ovary ± woolly; style 4–5 mm. Fruit (not known from Nordic material) 5–8 cm diam., globose, smooth, at first dark green with pale green variegation but uniformly orange-yellow when dry; pulp dry, spongy, with an intensely bitter taste, whitish. Seeds elliptic in outline, flat, 6 mm, brownish. – Mid-summer to autumn.
[2n=22]
Distribution and habitat. Casual, germinated from imported fruits on tips and other ruderal ground. – S recorded several times 1925–43 but later only once. Bl Karlskrona 1938, BhG Göteborg 4 localities 1925–1943, Harestad 1938, Nödinge (Surte 1926, Bohus 1939), Säve (Kvillebäcken 1927, Tagene 2003), Vg Borås 1934, Upl Järfälla 1914, 1925–1928, Stockholm 1941, Uppsala 1933. – A few more localities were given from S BhG Göteborg area by Fries (1971) but there are no vouchers; they are probably correct.
Macaronesia, arid parts of northern Africa and Asia. Cultivated in areas with a hot climate for the fruits, which are used as a powerful purgative. Naturalized in, e.g., the Mediterranean.

9. Lagenaria Ser.       To top

Seringe, Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. nat. Genève 3(1): 25, t. 2 (1825).
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. 1930 (L. vulgaris Ser. 1825). D Flaskegræskar. F pullokurpitsa. Fa . I . N flaskefrukt. S flaskkurbits. – Monoecious or dioecious annual. Stems climbing, like the petioles, tendrils, flowers and young fruits densely villous from long, multicellular, soft hairs; tendrils usually with 1–2 branches. Leaf-blades 10–27 cm, broadly ovate to almost orbicular or slightly pentagonal, with 1 or 2 cup-shaped glands on either side of the petiole; base deeply cordate; apex broadly rounded (but apiculate) or sometimes acute; margin distinctly and regularly dentate with alternating small and slightly larger teeth; lower surface densely hirsute, upper one more sparsely so. Flowers solitary, axillary, long-pedicellate (especially the male ones). Sepals 5, very narrowly triangular. Petals 3.5–4.5 × 3–3.5 cm, white, free, apiculate; margin ± undulate. Stamens 3, free; thecae convoluted. Fruit when dry very light and with tree-hard wall, extremely variable in shape and size: from globose to cylindrical but most often pear- or bottle-shaped; neck sometimes very long (to 2 m), curved or with an extra bulge. – [2n=22]
Cultivated since the late 20th century, mainly in greenhouses; sometimes germinating from garden refuse on rubbish tips. D Sjæ Lynge-Eskildstrup 1984. S Sk Landskrona 2001, Östra Broby 1998, SmI Tingsås 1999, Upl Ed 2005. – Pantropical, and cultivated worldwide for the decorative fruits used for, e.g., flasks, bowls, ladles, sheaths and music instruments; possibly originated in tropical Africa. - Map (not in the book).

10. Cucurbita L.       To top

Bunge, Sp. pl.: 657 (1753).
Monoecious annuals. Stems decumbent to climbing or rarely erect; tendrils usually present, branched, with bristles and also often glandular hairs at least in the proximal part. Leaf-blades in outline orbicular to slightly reniform, with cordate base, angular or palmately 3–5-lobed.
Flowers axillary, solitary. Receptacle campanulate. Sepals 5, very narrowly lanceolate to almost linear (rarely widened towards the apex). Corolla campanulate, 5-lobed; lobes triangular to broadly oblong, acuminate. Stamens 3; filaments ± connate to a column which has 3 openings near the base (giving access to the nectar); thecae 5, sigmoid, connate; connectives not protruding. Staminodes (in female flowers) 3, triangular. Style short; stigmas 3–5, 2-lobed. Fruit thick-walled, indehiscent.
Chromosome base-number x=20.
Variation. The two species treated here are well distinguished on good key characters, and hybridization is so far unimportant. However, as a consequence of domestication, similar fruit types have arisen in both. The vernacular names follow the conspicuous features selected for, and so a given cultivar of “pumpkin”or “winter squash” may belong either to C. pepo or to C. maxima, and the striking scallops (a cultivar group within C. pepo) have a counterpart in the cultivar ‘Turk’s Turban’ (S turbanpumpa) in C. maxima. – All summer squashes belong, however, to C. pepo, and the largest pumpkin cultivars belong to C. maxima.
Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Poir. (D Moskusgræskar, F melonikurpitsa, Fa , I , N muskatgresskar, S myskpumpa), with cultural origin in tropical America, is similar to C. pepo but is fairly densely hairy from soft hairs; the leaf-blades are thin, ± angular in outline but not distinctly lobed, and the sepals are sometimes widened towards the apex. It has been reported to occur in S BhG Göteborg (Delsjöupplaget) some years during the 1950’s (Blom 1961), but since there are no vouchers the record must remain doubtful.

Cucurbita pepo L.   Map     Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 1010 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 1151.4 (LINN), lectotype, sel. by Aubréville & Leroy, Fl. Camb. Laos Viêt. 15: 105 (1975).
D Mandelgræskar. F kurpitsa. Fa . I . N gresskar. S pumpa.
Stems climbing to several m, decumbent (and then sometimes rooting) or short and erect (and then with very short internodes), 1.5–4 cm diam., angular to sulcate, scabrid from coarse, conical, multicellular hairs with coloured transverse walls, and in addition puberulent (sometimes also with short glandular hairs). Petioles 15–60 cm, thick, hollow and juicy, hairy like the stem. Leaf-blades in outline very broadly ovate to orbicular with deeply cordate base and broadly obtuse apex, usually palmately 3–5-lobed but sometimes only angular, 36–60 × 32–43 cm, 0.7–1 times as long as wide, widest just above the base; lower surface densely scabrid all over and in addition with scattered, coarse, multicellular bristles along the veins, upper surface more sparsely scabrid, sometimes with whitish markings; margin coarsely and irregularly dentate, also in the basal sinus; lobes (if present) broadly ovate to broadly obovate; midlobe 35–80% of the length of the blade.
Pedicels with a mixture of long and short, stiff hairs, those of male flowers 7–18 cm, those of female ones 4–7 cm, in flower slightly angular, in fruit sulcate. Hypanthium 7–12 mm, broadly campanulate. Sepals 22–35 mm, hirsute. Corolla golden yellow inside, paler yellow with green, thick veins outside, 7–8 cm, campanulate (with only slightly widened limb), with 2.5–3.5 cm long, triangular, acute. slightly wrinkled lobes having fairly flat margins; inner surface fairly sparsely hairy from thin hairs, outer surface densely and softly puberulent. Ovary hairy from a mixture of short hairs and long, articulate hairs. Fruit to 50 cm, cylindrical (and often slightly angular in transect), obovoid to globose or sometimes flattened (much wider than long), even and smooth or with prominent tubercles, when mature yellow to orange; pulp fibrous or soft, sweet or not, whitish to orange. Seeds finally free in a central cavity, ovate in outline, flat, 7–15 × 5–9 mm, white or yellowish brown. – Mid-summer to autumn.
[2n=40]
Distribution and habitat. Frequently cultivated in gardens and greenhouses and imported on a large scale; fairly common on food refuse at tips and composts, rarely seashores and newly constructed roadbanks. The species has probably occurred on most municipal tips since the 1990’s but is unevenly documented. – D ØJy 5 records, all later than 2000, VJy Esbjerg 1978, 1999, FyL 5 records, all later than 2000, Sjæ 12 localities, LFM Nakskov 1974, Nykøbing 2005. N Øf Fredrikstad 1912, Ak Oslo 1924, Op Jevnaker 2004, Bu Ringerike 2004, Vf Borre 2002, Larvik 2002, VA Mandal 1933, Ro Sola 2002, ST Trondheim 1945, 1957 and 1958. S found in single or several places in most provinces north to BhG, Vsm and Gst; Vb Umeå 1925, Nb Nederkalix several records 1996–98, Piteå 1994. F one or more records from most provinces north to OP, only the following pre-1990: V Kaarina 1906, Turku 1952, U Helsinki several records 1926–60, EH 3 localities 1961–83, PH Jyväskylä 1952. – Reports from N Øf Fredrikstad and Moss and Vf Sandefjord and Tønsberg (Lid & Lid 2005) are, at least in part, due to misdeterminations.
Grown for the fruit in all hot or temperate parts of the world; originated in Mexico and SE North America.
Variation. Cucurbita pepo must be one of the most variable plant species under domestication. The numerous cultivars are usually referred to six groups. The fruits of summer squashes (F kesäkurpitsa, S sommarpumpa; including courgettes and zucchini) are harvested immature in summer and are eaten as vegetables; most cultivars have elongated fruits. The fruits of winter squashes and pumpkins (F talvikurpitsa, S vinterpumpa) are harvested in autumn when mature; by then they have a thick wall and can be stored for several months; they are used in cooking and for decorative purposes. In general, winter squashes have whitish flesh, pumpkins more orange. – The other groups of cultivars are spaghetti squashes (F spagettikurpitsa, S spagettipumpa) with flesh that separates into spaghetti-like strands when boiled, scallops (S tefatspumpa) which are strongly depressed and ornamented in various ways, crooknecks (S skruvhalspumpa) with an elongated, curved or hooked neck, and ornamental gourds (F koristekurpitsa, S prydnadspumpa) with a hard shell and very variable in shape and colour.
In variants with short, erect stem the tendrils are frequently unbranched or even entirely absent. The leaves are often distinctly lobed but several cultivars have entire, angular leaves.
Similar taxa. Cucurbita pepo is often confused with Cucumis melo; for differences see that species. For differences from Cucurbita maxima (rare casual), see below.

Rare casual       To top

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne 1786. D Centnergræskar. F jättikurpitsa. Fa . I . N kjempegresskar. S jättepumpa. – Similar to C. pepo, but pedicel in fruit almost terete and corolla salver-shaped (with a distinct, strongly widened limb) with broadly oblong, obtuse, strongly wrinkled lobes having distinctly undulate margins and inner surface almost velvety from fairly thick hairs. Stem almost terete, slightly less scabrid than in C. pepo. Leaf-blades never lobed, clearly reniform, 0.5–0.8 times as long as wide; margin of basal sinus sometimes almost entire. Fruit in some variants extremely large but very variable in shape and size (variation parallel to that in C. pepo). – [2n=40]
Grown for ornament and consumtion and also imported on a large scale, found on rubbish tips (germinated from food refuse or sewage sludge). D Sjæ Valbyparken 1992 (sewage works). S Sk at least Kropp 2003, Bl Rödeby 1998, 2003, Klm Ljungby 2002, 2006, SmI Tingsås 2001, Srm Brännkyrka 2003, Eskilstuna 2003, Gst Valbo 2004. – Also recorded from BhG but no specimens have been available. – Cultivated worldwide; origin in South America. - Map (not in the book).

References To top

Blom, C. 1961: Bidrag till kännedom om Sveriges adventiv- och ruderatflora 5. Acta Horti Gothob. 24: 61–133.

Fries, H. 1971: Göteborgs och Bohus läns fanerogamer och ormbunkar. Ed. 2. Uddevalla.

Hansen, A. 1951: Udbredelsen af Caprifoliaceae, Adoxaceae, Dipsacaceae og Cucurbitaceae i Danmark. Bot. Tidsskr. 47: 481–509.

Hansen, K. (ed.) 1991: Dansk feltflora. Ed. 5. Gyldendal.

Hämet-Ahti, L., Suominen, J., Ulvinen, T. & Uotila, P. (eds.) 1998: Retkeilykasvio (Field Flora of Finland). Ed. 4. Finnish Museum of Natural History, Botanical Museum. Helsinki.

Jeffrey, C. 1979: A review of the genus Bryonia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Kew Bulletin 23: 441–461.

Kirkbride, J.H. 1993: Biosystematic monograph of the genus Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae). Parkway Publishers, Boone, North Carolina.

Kurtto, A. & Lahti, T. 1987: Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo. Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland. Pamphlet Bot. Museum Univ. Helsinki 11.

Lid, J. & Lid, D.T. 2005: Norsk flora. Ed. 7, revised by R. Elven. Det norske samlaget. Oslo.

Lindström, A. 1920: Marstrandsöns ormbunkar och fanerogamer. Bot. Notiser 1920: 177–210.

Tutin, T.G. 1968: Bryonia L. In T. G. Tutin et al. (eds), Flora europaea 2: 297–298. Cambridge.

notes